Pacific Science 63 (2009)

Pacific Science 63, no. 1

Habitat-Mediated Use of Space by Juvenile and Mating Adult Port Jackson Sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, in Eastern Australia
David Mark Powter and William Gladstone, 1-14

Studies of spatial ecology of demersal sharks are critical to understanding the significance of habitat variation; however, limited information exists. Spatial ecology of adult Heterodontus portusjacksoni was studied at three locations on the central and southern coast of New South Wales, Australia, from January 2002 to December 2005. Juveniles within a nursery area were studied from December 2002 to December 2005. Tag-recapture, day and night underwater visual census, and acoustic tagging were used. Adults returned annually to the same coastal breeding reefs for up to four consecutive years. Individual juveniles resided within a sea-grass nursery area for at least 2 yr and were not uniformly distributed throughout the nursery. Adult females often sheltered in aggregations in gutters as a male avoidance strategy, and both sexes utilized the sand/reef interface in the absence of gutters. Juveniles aggregated infrequently due to absence of habitat features that mediated aggregation. Acoustic tracks of adults revealed periods of inactivity up to 27 hr. Juveniles spent significant amounts of time inactive, punctuated with short bouts of swimming. Juveniles utilized moderate activity spaces (3,510–583,990 m²) centered over a core area of the sea-grass bed but also ranged over much larger areas of the bay. Use of space by H. portusjacksoni is strongly influenced by habitat characteristics throughout its life history.

Characteristics of Scylla spp. (Decapoda: Portunidae) and their Mangrove Forest Habitat in Ngaremeduu Bay, Republic of Palau
Katherine C. Ewel, Stacy Rowe, Blake NcNaughton, and Kimberly M. Bonine, 15-26

Three species of mangrove crabs (Scylla spp.) were captured in live traps in Ngaremeduu Bay on the island of Babeldaob, Republic of Palau. Most were S. serrata, but one individual each of S. olivacea and S. paramamosain was also trapped, establishing existence of a biogeographic gradient in mangrove crab species diversity across the Micronesian archipelago. Species composition of mangrove trees along transects around the bay and along the three major tributaries was similar to that of other Micronesian islands, although trees are smaller in Palau. For 17 months in 1999–2000, crabs were trapped in the bay and captured by hand along the transects; they were trapped again for 1 month in 2004. Characteristics of the crabs and of burrows encountered along the transects suggested that only S. serrata was captured in 1999–2000 and that population density of this species was 40 crabs ha­-¹. Carapace widths for the 159 crabs captured during the entire study did not differ significantly over the 4-yr span, and averaged 153 mm for males and 137 mm for females. However, average carapace widths for the largest quartile of crabs declined significantly from 174 mm to 171 mm across the study period. Catch per unit effort was 0.28 crab per trap night in 1999–2000 and 0.45 in 2004. Although large crabs are still available in Ngaremeduu Bay, current regulations may not be sufficient to keep populations from decreasing gradually in size, especially in the face of increasing harvest pressure on the island of Babeldaob.

Behavioral Responses of the Endemic Shrimp Halocaridina rubra (Malacostraca: Atyidae) to an Introduced Fish, Gambusia affinis (Actinopterygii: Poeciliidae) and Implications for the Trophic Structure of Hawaiian Anchialine Ponds
Krista A. Capps, Caroline B. Turner, Michael T. Booth, Danica L. Lombardozzi, Scott H. McArt, David Chai, and Nelson G. Hairston Jr., 27-37

In the Hawaiian Islands, intentionally introduced exotic fishes have been linked to changes in native biodiversity and community composition. In 1905, the mosquito fish Gambusia affinis was introduced to control mosquitoes. Subsequently, G. affinis spread throughout the Islands and into coastal anchialine ponds. Previous studies suggest that presence of invasive fishes in anchialine ponds may eliminate native species, including the endemic shrimp Halocaridina rubra. We examined effects of G. affinis on H. rubra populations in anchialine ponds on the Kona-Kohala coast of the island of Hawai‘i. In the presence of G. affinis, H. rubra exhibited a diel activity pattern that was not seen in fishless ponds. Shrimp in ponds with fish were active only at night. This pattern was evident in anchialine ponds and in laboratory experiments. In laboratory predation experiments, G. affinis preferentially consumed smaller H. rubra, and in the field the H. rubra collected from invaded sites were larger than those from fishless ponds. Analysis of trophic position using stable isotope analyses showed that feeding of H. rubra was not significantly distinct from that of snails, assumed to feed at trophic level 2.0 on epilithic algae, but G. affinis was slightly omnivorous, feeding at tropic level 2.2. The mosquito fish diet was apparently composed primarily of algae when the defensive behavior of H. rubra made them substantially unavailable as prey. The effect of successful establishment of G. affinis on shrimp behavior has the potential to alter abundance of benthic algae and processing and recycling of nutrients in anchialine pond ecosystems.

Expressions of 1976–1977 and 1988–1989 Regime Shifts in Sea-Surface Temperature off Southern California and Hawai‘i
Laurence C. Breaker and Stephanie J. Flora, 39-60

Sea-surface temperatures off southern California from Scripps Pier and from Koko Head, Hawai‘i, were examined to determine what impact regime shifts that occurred in 1976–1977 and 1988–1989 had on environmental conditions at each location. Cumulative sums were employed to enhance the detection process. The cumulative sum time histories revealed major turning points at both locations at the time of the 1976–1977 event. At both locations, increases in temperature were indicated, consistent with the phase change in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation that took place at that time. The cumulative sums also indicated major turning points at both locations during the 1988–1989 event. A new procedure called the method of expanding means was employed to determine the long-term impact of these events. By comparing means before and after a given event it is possible to observe the magnitude of the change and to what extent it is sustained. For the 1976–1977 regime shift, temperatures increased rapidly and remained consistently higher, by ~1°C for 2–3 yr at Scripps Pier. This increase occurred over a period of approximately 7 months and accounts for more than half of the total warming that has occurred at that location since 1920. At Koko Head, a similar response was observed with a sustained increase of approximately +0.5°C. The oceanic response to the 1988–1989 event was quite different. At Scripps Pier, temperatures before and after this event did not show any tendency to converge to significantly different values out to periods of 2–3 yr. At Koko Head, mean temperatures did converge to slightly different values after 1 yr, with mean values being consistently lower after this event (~–0.4°C). It was shown that in some cases changes associated with these events could be identified in the original data, but without the help of cumulative sums, it is usually not possible to make a clear distinction between changes of interest and other sources of variability. Finally, decorrelation time scales for the records at both locations were estimated and found to be on the order of a year, implying spatial scales that are at least synoptic (tens to hundreds of kilometers).

Reef-Top Sediment Bodies: Windward O‘ahu, Hawai‘i
Christopher Bochicchio, Charles Fletcher, Matthew Dyer, and Thomas Smith, 61-82

Hawaiian fringing reefs display sand bodies on their surfaces that are potentially important components of littoral sediment budgets. This work provides a regional survey of modern reef-top sediment storage and investigated geologic controls on sediment storage potential. Sand bodies are formed when sediment accumulates in topographic depressions that are the result of meteoric water eroding the emerged carbonate reef platform during periods of lower sea level. The relief of some depressions may be modified by Holocene reef accretion. Depression morphology exerts a strong control on volume and internal distribution of sediment. In this study a total of 205 jet probe thickness measurements was collected from 54 major sand bodies on the fringing reef (0–20 m depth) adjacent to 22 km of Southeast O‘ahu coastline (Kailua, Lanikai, and Waimānalo). Volumes were determined and synthesized with previous volume estimates of coastal subaerial and deeper submarine sediment bodies (20–200 m depth), giving the total sediment storage within the coastal system. Sand bodies range from 50 to 2,800 m from shore. Measured thickness varied from 0 to greater than 3.0 m with a mean of 0.95 m. For this study sand bodies were classified into three dominate morphologies: channel, field, and karst depression. The volume of sediment stored in channels was 58,253±618×10³ m³, fields contained 171±6×10³ m³, and karst depressions contained 1,332±248×10³ m³. Correlation of sediment body distribution with reef and coastal plain morphology revealed potential geologic controls on sand body formation in this region. Meteoric runoff and reef slope are important controls on spatial distribution of sand bodies.

Hyperiid Amphipods (Crustacea: Peracarida) in Mexican Waters of the Pacific Ocean
Rebeca Gasca, 83-95

Information on regional diversity of hyperiid amphipods of the eastern Pacific Ocean is still largely incomplete. Recent surveys of hyperiid fauna from the Mexican Pacific motivated a revision of extant faunistic accounts. This revised list includes all records from Mexican waters of the eastern Pacific (MP) from Baja California to the southern border with Central America. A total of 150 species belonging to 19 families and 48 genera of the Hyperiidea was included in this account; seven are new records in the MP. Up to 31 nominal species were excluded from previous listings. Overall, the epipelagic infraorder Physocephalata is highly diverse in the MP (119 species); Physosomata, containing deep-living forms, are less diverse (31 species). The northern part of the MP (including the gulf and off the Baja California peninsula) harbors the highest number of species/records, whereas nearly half of the species are known from the central areas and six from the southernmost sector of the MP. This pattern reflects current knowledge of the group in these areas and also geographic differences in the sampling/research efforts, but it is not a diversity gradient. Species richness of the MP is comparable with that known from other Pacific subregions. The epipelagic hyperiid fauna of the tropical MP remains relatively unknown and should be studied further to reveal regional patterns of diversity. The deep-living hyperiid community of the tropical eastern Pacific harbors a diversity that is deserving of further study.

Evidence for a Correlation between Systematics and Bioactivity in New Caledonian Cunoniaceae and Its Implications for Screening and Conservation
Yohan Pillon and Bruno Fogliani, 97-103

It is generally assumed that there is a good correlation between systematics and the secondary compounds found in plants. However because of the frequent homoplasy of chemical characters this has been difficult to test using statistical methods. Here we applied two nonparametric tests on a published data set, where 50 species of New Caledonian Cunoniaceae were screened for bioactivity against several pathogenic strains. Using Moran’s I index we showed that in two of nine tests against pathogenic strains there was a significantly higher similarity than expected in bioactivities between species belonging to the same genus and a significantly higher than expected dissimilarity in bioactivity between species belonging to different tribes. When considering the bioactivities against all pathogenic strains with Mantel tests, we also found significant correlation between bioactivity and phylogenetic distance in two of four tests. This has implications in screening and conservation. Searches for new molecules and bioactivity should preferentially be made on species spread across the tree of life. There is also a need to preserve as much phylogenetic diversity as possible to make sure that the widest reservoir of natural compounds remains available for future generations.

Subfossil Land Snails from Easter Island, Including Hotumatua anakenana, New Genus and Species (Pulmonata: Achatinellidae)
Patrick V. Kirch, Carl C. Christensen, and David W. Steadman, 105-122

The depauperate modern terrestrial biota of Easter Island contrasts with that of most other southeastern Polynesian high islands, which characteristically support a number of endemic species of insects, land snails, birds, and plants. We investigated cultural and noncultural late Holocene deposits at Anakena, Easter Island, establishing the former presence of endemic land snails on the island. These include an unidentified helicinid, a Nesopupa species, and a previously undescribed extinct achatinellid land snail, Hotumatua anakenana Kirch, Christensen & Steadman, n. genus and n. sp. A human-introduced achatinellid, Pacificella variabilis, occurs in later stratigraphic contexts of the same site. Prehistoric deforestation may have been the primary cause of the extinction of Hotumatua, although predation by rats or other alien species may have been involved as well. Along with recently discovered extirpated species of angiosperms, seabirds, and land birds, the extinction of Hotumatua reflects the nearly complete loss of the native biota of Easter Island after Polynesian colonization about 1,000 yr ago.

A New Live-Bearing Species of Scincid Lizard (Reptilia: Scincidae) from New Caledonia, Southwest Pacific
Ross A. Sadlier, Sarah A. Smith, Anthony Whitaker, and Aaron M. Bauer, 123-136

A new species of skink, Kanakysaurus zebratus, is described from the ultramafic Massif de Kopéto and Massif de Koniambo on the northwestern coast of Grande Terre, New Caledonia. Although this new species is similar in overall appearance to its congener K. viviparus from the far northwest of Grande Terre and the Îles Belep, it can be distinguished by features of scalation and coloration. It is also identified as being genetically distinct from and reciprocally monophyletic with respect to populations of K. viviparus from Rivière Néhoué (type population), the Îles Belep, and a recently discovered population from Sommet Poum (reported here for the first time). The population of Kanakysaurus on Dôme de Tiébaghi (5 km southeast of Rivière Néhoué) is problematic: in morphology it is closest to K. viviparus, but DNA sequence data group part of the population with K. viviparus and part with K. zebratus, n. sp. On Kopéto the new species was found only in maquis shrubland at 500–1,000 m in elevation and on Koniambo in Gymnostoma-dominated closed forest at 700 m. Adult females collected on the Massif de Kopéto in February during the height of the wet season had well-developed embryos, confirming a live-bearing mode of reproduction for the new species, and for the genus as a whole. The summit area of Kopéto is the site of a large nickel mine and substantial portions of the known range of the new species are projected to be cleared to extract nickel-bearing ore in the future; extensive development for nickel mining is also forecast in the immediate future for Koniambo. Because of the apparently restricted range and projected degradation of habitat of this new species, it is here regarded as assignable to IUCN Red List Category Endangered and considered a high priority for conservation management.

Grammonus nagaredai, a New Viviparous Marine Fish (Ophidiiformes: Bythitidae) from the Hawaiian Islands
John E. Randall and Marc James Hughes, 137-146

Grammonus nagaredai is described as a new species of viviparous bythitid fish from two specimens collected from caves off O‘ahu and Hawai‘i at depths of 6–9 m. Grammonus yunokawai Nielsen, known from one specimen from a cave in 20 m in the Ryukyu Islands, is the most similar species, differing in having a deeper body, more convex nape, broader maxilla, longer predorsal length, and shorter pectoral fins.

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Pacific Science 63, no. 2

Losing the Bounty? Investigating Species Richness in Isolated Freshwater Ecosystems of Oceania
Robert Schabetsberger, Gabriele Drozdowski, Eugen Rott, Rupert Lenzenweger, Christian D. Jersabek, Frank Fiers, Walter Traunspurger, Nicola Reiff, Fabio Stoch, Alexey A. Kotov, Koen Martens, Heinrich Schatz, and Roland Kaiser, 153-179

The South Pacific freshwater ecosystems have never been investigated systematically. Although their ecological value has long been recognized and recommended for protection, little action has been taken so far. Here, we present results of 39 lentic water bodies on 18 islands belonging to seven countries. Temperature, conductivity, and pH were measured and samples of aquatic organisms were collected. Freshwater algae, nematodes, rotifers, ostracods, copepods, cladocerans, and aquatic oribatid mites were identified to genus or species level. Sixty-six percent of all taxa recorded have a cosmopolitan distribution, 14% are circumtropical/tropicopolitan species, and for 20% a restricted distribution predominantly in Australasia has previously been reported. Eleven new copepod and three new ostracod taxa were discovered. Out of 39 water bodies we found at least 17 stocked with nonindigenous fish species. Salinization and uncontrolled introduction of alien fish species may lead to reduced species richness in these remote freshwater ecosystems. The highest species richness was recorded in old, shallow, fish-free softwater lakes at high altitude.

Dietary Shifts by Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the Kāne‘ohe Bay Region of the Hawaiian Islands: A 28-Year Study
Dennis J. Russell and George H. Balazs, 181-192

The green turtle, Chelonia mydas, has modified its feeding behavior to include the increasing abundance of nonnative algae growing in the greater Kāne‘ohe Bay area of O‘ahu in the Hawaiian Islands. Changes in diet of the green turtle are correlated with an increase in abundance of seven species of nonnative algae between 1977 and 2005. Turtles were found to be eating 130 species of marine vegetation, and the three most common were the nonnative species Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis, and Gracilaria salicornia. These three abundant and nutritious food sources are now an important part of the turtle diet in addition to native species found in and near Kāne‘ohe Bay. Chelonia mydas behavior has shifted to include these new seaweeds within 10 years of their introduction to the region. The turtles have also gradually included an additional four less-prolific slow-growing nonnative algal species (Eucheuma denticulatum, Gracilaria tikvahiae, Kappaphycus striatum, and Kappaphycus alvarezii), but the time it has taken turtles to include these species has been longer, 20–30 years, after the seaweeds were introduced. During this same 28-year time period numbers of C. mydas have increased throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

Ciguatera in the Introduced Fish Cephalopholis argus (Serranidae) in Hawai‘i and Implications for Fishery Management
Jan Dierking and Cara E. Campora, 193-204

The Peacock gouper (Cephalopholis argus) was introduced to Hawai‘i in 1956 to establish a new fishery. It has become abundant, but the fishery failed due to concerns about ciguatera fish poisoning, a neurological disease in humans caused by ingestion of fish containing ciguatoxin. The aim of this study was to provide better understanding of geographic patterns of ciguatoxicity in C. argus and of the correlation of toxicity with morphometric characters of this species, with the goal to assess the possibility of a safe fishery. Overall, 18.2% of C. argus specimens from sites around O‘ahu and Hawai‘i Island contained ciguatoxin in concentrations potentially harmful to humans. This was higher than the rate of occurrence in Hawaiian reef fishes in general, and on the scale of ciguatoxicity in species banned from sale in fish markets. Toxicity was high around both analyzed islands. However, toxic individuals were significantly less common around O‘ahu than around Hawai‘i Island (8% versus 24%). Regular geographic patterns in toxicity within islands (e.g., gradients along coastlines) were not present, and variability in toxicity within each sample site was high. Toxicity was significantly but weakly positively correlated with C. argus length but not with fish condition (measured by length at weight). In conclusion, high prevalence of toxic individuals, variability in toxicity on all analyzed spatial scales, and low explanatory power of morphometric characters make the avoidance of ciguatoxic C. argus individuals difficult. A safe fishery for this species in Hawai‘i therefore does not appear feasible at present.

Distribution, Density, and Biomass of Introduced Small Mammals in the Southern Mariana Islands
Andrew S. Wiewel, Amy A. Yackel Adams, and Gordon H. Rodda, 205-222

Although it is generally accepted that introduced small mammals have detrimental effects on island ecology, our understanding of these effects is frequently limited by incomplete knowledge of small mammal distribution, density, and biomass. Such information is especially critical in the Mariana Islands, where small mammal density is inversely related to effectiveness of Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) control tools, such as mouse-attractant traps. We used mark-recapture sampling to determine introduced small mammal distribution, density, and biomass in the major habitats of Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian, including grassland, Leucaena forest, and native limestone forest. Of the five species captured, Rattus diardii (sensu Robins et al. 2007) was most common across habitats and islands. In contrast, Mus musculus was rarely captured at forested sites, Suncus murinus was not captured on Rota, and R. exulans and R. norvegicus captures were uncommon. Modeling indicated that neophobia, island, sex, reproductive status, and rain amount influenced R. diardii capture probability, whereas time, island, and capture heterogeneity influenced S. murinus and M. musculus capture probability. Density and biomass were much greater on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam, most likely a result of Brown Tree Snake predation pressure on the latter island. Rattus diardii and M. musculus density and biomass were greatest in grassland, whereas S. murinus density and biomass were greatest in Leucaena forest. The high densities documented during this research suggest that introduced small mammals (especially R. diardii) are impacting abundance and diversity of the native fauna and flora of the Mariana Islands. Further, Brown Tree Snake control and management tools that rely on mouse attractants will be less effective on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam. If the Brown Tree Snake becomes established on these islands, high-density introduced small mammal populations will likely facilitate and support a high-density Brown Tree Snake population, even as native species are reduced or extirpated.

Critically Endangered Fijian Crested Iguana (Brachylophus vitiensis) Shows Habitat Preference for Globally Threatened Tropical Dry Forest
Clare Morrison, Gunnar Keppel, Nunia Thomas, Isaac Rounds, and Peter S. Harlow, 223-251

Tropical dry forests are a unique and threatened ecosystem in the Pacific and globally. In Fiji, the endangered Fijian crested iguana (Brachylophus vitiensis) is endemic to tropical dry forests. Yadua Taba Island contains one of the best remaining stands of tropical dry forest in the Pacific along with the largest (and only secure) population of B. vitiensis in Fiji and has been proposed as a translocation source for iguana conservation. In this study we determined the major vegetation types on Yadua Taba and identified forest habitat preferences of B. vitiensis to (1) characterize the island’s habitats for tropical dry forest regeneration monitoring and (2) understand which forest types are preferred by iguanas for future translocation projects. Vegetation data were collected using reconnaissance, entitation, line transects, and aerial photos. Iguana abundance data were collected by nocturnal surveys of permanent transects. Six major vegetation types were identified of which tropical dry forest was the largest (46% of the island), followed by a combination of rocky cliff–shrubland/grassland vegetation (26%). Our conservative estimate of B. vitiensis population size on Yadua Taba is 12,000 iguanas, the majority of which occur in tropical dry forest. Superabundance of the dry forest understory tree Vavaea amicorum, the favorite fruit species of iguanas, may help account for the high density of iguanas observed. These results highlight the ecological link between tropical dry forest and B. vitiensis and emphasize the importance of rehabilitation or conservation of tropical dry forest habitat in potential iguana translocation sites as part of the management plan for B. vitiensis throughout the Fiji Islands.

Carlia ailanpalai (Reptilia: Scincidae): An Invasive Species of Lizard in the Federated States of Micronesia
Donald W. Buden, 243-251

Distribution of the introduced scincid lizard Carlia ailanpalai Zug in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is reviewed. It is common in open grassy areas but seldom occurs in mature forest. Preliminary surveys indicate that it is well established in Yap, though less frequently encountered at increasing distance from Colonia, the main settlement, and it is unrecorded in the extreme northern and southern parts of Yap. It is the most common species of lizard in open, grassy, ruderal habitats throughout Weno Island, Chuuk, being nearly the only species encountered in the commercial district, but it is unknown elsewhere in Chuuk State. The only record for Kosrae is a single specimen collected in 1988 (first record for the FSM), but there is no evidence of an established population. There are no records for Pohnpei State. Guam is likely the primary source for the Yap and Chuuk populations (and Kosrae specimen), but the time of initial introduction is unknown. Carlia ailanpalai appears to have spread rapidly, at least on Weno, Chuuk, where it has become the predominant lizard in open habitats islandwide, possibly since the late 1960s. How C. ailanpalai interacts with other species in the FSM requires further study, but preliminary surveys of distribution and relative abundance suggest that it has a negative impact on populations of Emoia jakati and, to a lesser extent, on other Emoia species as well. Populations of C. ailanpalai in the FSM meet the criteria for invasive species status as it is defined by numerous U.S. government agencies and international conservation groups.

Evidence of a Possible Decline since 1989 in False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) around the Main Hawaiian Islands
Randall R. Reeves, Stephen Leatherwood, and Robin W. Baird, 253-261

Recent evidence indicates that there is a small, demographically isolated, island-associated population of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) around the main Hawaiian Islands. Although it is known that false killer whales in Hawai‘i are sometimes killed or seriously injured in the Hawai‘i-based long-line fishery, it is not known whether such interactions have resulted in a reduction in population size or whether other factors have been negatively influencing population size. We report the results of an aerial survey in June and July 1989, the purpose of which was to obtain a minimum count of the number of false killer whales around the main Hawaiian Islands. The false killer whale was the third most commonly seen species of odontocete off the island of Hawai‘i during the survey, representing 17% of sightings. Groups of more than 300 individuals were seen on three different days, with minimum counts of 380, 460, and 470 individuals in these groups. The encounter rate, relative species ranking, and average group size from the 1989 survey were all substantially greater than those from more recent aerial and ship-based surveys. The largest group observed in 1989 (470) contained almost four times as many whales as estimated for the entire main Hawaiian Islands from recent aerial surveys (121 individuals, CV = 0.47) or mark-recapture analyses (123 individuals, CV = 0.72). Therefore, the population of false killer whales around the main Hawaiian Islands may have declined substantially since 1989. The cause or causes of such a decline are uncertain.

Andvakia discipulorum, A New Species of Burrowing Sea Anemone from Hawai‘i, with a Revision of Andvakia Danielssen, 1890
Marymegan Daly and Roger H. Goodwill, 263-275

We describe Andvakia discipulorum Daly & Goodwill, n. sp., from an intertidal mudflat of Kāne‘ohe Bay, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. Members of this species are inconspicuous, being small and having a column covered with sand. In comparison with other species of the genus, Andvakia discipulorum, n. sp., presents distinct arrangement of mesenteries, sizes of nematocysts, and musculature. We also provide a redescription of Andvakia boninensis based on specimens collected from Saipan, Mariana Islands. These descriptions provide an opportunity to revise and update the taxonomy of Andvakia and to address the systematics of family Andvakiidae. We determine that Andvakia is the senior synonym of Decaphellia and reject earlier hypotheses of synonymy between Andvakia and Capneopsis, Ilyactis, and Octophellia. A tabular key to the species of Andvakia is provided.

A New Name for the Hawaiian Antipatharian Coral Formerly Known as Antipathes dichotoma (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)
Dennis M. Opresko, 277-291

A Hawaiian species of antipatharian coral previously identified as Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766, is described as Antipathes griggi Opresko, n. sp. The species forms tall, bushy colonies with elongate, upright terminal branches, often arranged uniserially. Spines are conical, mostly 0.20 to 0.26 mm tall, apically bifurcated, multilobed to jagged in appearance, and covered over most of their surface with small roundish to elongate papillae. Minute secondary spines may occur on some of the thicker branches. Polyps are 1 to 1.6 mm in transverse diameter. The species resembles A. fruticosa Gray in branching pattern, size of spines, and presence of secondary spines but differs in morphology and density of the spines (thicker, more crowded primary spines and fewer secondary spines in A. griggi). Other related species differ from A. griggi in having more widely spreading and irregularly arranged branches, no secondary spines, and either smaller spines with fewer apical lobes (A. curvata van Pesch, A. arborea Dana, and A. galapagensis Deichmann) or larger spines with the apical lobes arranged in a somewhat coronate pattern [A. spinulosa (Schultze) and A. lentipinna Brook].

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Pacific Science 63, no. 3

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 5. Eleutherodactylus coqui, the Coqui Frog (Anura: Leptodactylidae)
Karen H. Beard, Emily A. Price, and William C. Pitt, 297-316

The nocturnal, terrestrial frog Eleutherodactylus coqui, known as the Coqui, is endemic to Puerto Rico and was accidentally introduced to Hawai‘i via nursery plants in the late 1980s. Over the past two decades E. coqui has spread to the four main Hawaiian Islands, and a major campaign was launched to eliminate and control it. One of the primary reasons this frog has received attention is its loud mating call (85–90 dB at 0.5 m). Many homeowners do not want the frogs on their property, and their presence has influenced housing prices. In addition, E. coqui has indirectly impacted the floriculture industry because customers are reticent to purchase products potentially infested with frogs. Eleutherodactylus coqui attains extremely high densities in Hawai‘i, up to 91,000 frogs ha⁻¹, and can reproduce year-round, once every 1–2 months, and become reproductive around 8–9 months. Although the Coqui has been hypothesized to potentially compete with native insectivores, the most obvious potential ecological impact of the invasion is predation on invertebrate populations and disruption of associated ecosystem processes. Multiple forms of control have been attempted in Hawai‘i with varying success. The most successful control available at this time is citric acid. Currently, the frog is established throughout the island of Hawai‘i but may soon be eliminated on the other Hawaiian Islands via control efforts. Eradication is deemed no longer possible on the island of Hawai‘i.

Estimation of the Origin of Polypedates leucomystax (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) Introduced to the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan
Norihiro Kuraishi, Masafumi Matsui, and Hidetoshi Ota, 317-325

We attempted to estimate the origin of the exotic frog Polypedates leucomystax in the Ryukyu Archipelago. This species was first found in 1964 just in front of the U.S. military base at Kadena on Okinawajima Island and currently has established feral populations on more than 20 islands. We conducted phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Samples of P. leucomystax from five islands of the Ryukyus had a single haplotype, which was identical to that of a Philippine sample but quite different from haplotypes of Vietnamese samples. Samples of P. megacephalus from Taiwan formed a clade different from the P. leucomystax clade. From these results, P. leucomystax in the Ryukyus seems to have originated through accidental transportation of very few individuals with military cargo from somewhere around the Philippines.

Endoparasites of Eleven Species of Ranid Frogs (Anura: Ranidae) from Papua New Guinea
Stephen R. Goldberg, Charles R. Bursey, and Fred Kraus, 327-337

Two hundred eighty-eight ranid frogs from Papua New Guinea collected from 2002 to 2005 were examined for endoparasites: Platymantis adiastolus, P. boulengeri, P. browni, P. gilliardi, P. papuensis, P. schmidti, Rana daemeli, R. garritor, R. jimiensis, R. milneana, and R. papua. Found were one species of Cestoda (as cysticerci), three species of Digenea (Opisthioglyphe cophixali, Diplodiscus amphichrus, and Mesocoelium monas), 18 species of Nematoda (adults of Abbreviata oligopapillata, Aplectana krausi, Aplectana macintoshii, Aplectana zweifeli, Cosmocerca novaeguineae, C. tyleri, Desmognathinema papuensis, Falcaustra papuensis, Icosiella papuensis, Meteterakis crombiei, Ochoterenella papuensis, Paracapillaria spratti, Pseudorictularia dipsarilis, Rhabdias australiensis, Seuratascaris numidica, larvae of Abbreviata sp., and Ascaridae gen. sp.), two species of Acanthocephala (Acanthocephalus bufonis and cystacanths of a second species), and one species of Pentastomida (nymphs of Kiricephalus sp.). Sixty-seven new host records, one new country record, and several new island records are reported. Nematodes composed 18/24 (75%) of the species present. Thirteen of the 24 endoparasite species found currently appear to be endemic to Papua New Guinea.

Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Predation on Nonindigenous Snails in Hawai‘i: Complex Management Implications
Wallace M. Meyer III and Aaron B. Shiels, 339-347

Understanding interactions among nonindigenous species that pose a threat to native species is crucial to effectively preserve native biodiversity. Captive feeding trials demonstrated that the black rat, Rattus rattus, will readily consume two of the most destructive nonindigenous snails, the giant African snail, Achatina fulica (100% predation), and the predatory snail Euglandina rosea (80% predation). Rats consumed snails from the entire size range offered (11.5 to 59.0 mm shell length), suggesting that there is no size refuge above which snails can escape rat predation. Damaged E. rosea shells from the captive feeding trials were compared with shells collected in the Wai‘anae Mountains, O‘ahu. This revealed evidence that R. rattus is responsible for at least 7%–20% of E. rosea mortality. However, this is likely a substantial underestimate because 67% of E. rosea shells in the captive feeding trials were damaged in such a way that they would not have been collected in the field. Therefore, we hypothesize that reduction or eradication of R. rattus populations may cause an ecological release of some nonindigenous snail species where these groups coexist. As such, effective restoration for native snails and plants may not be realized after R. rattus removal in forest ecosystems as a consequence of the complex interactions that currently exist among rats, nonindigenous snails, and the remaining food web.

A Recent Outbreak of the Hawaiian Koa Moth, Scotorythra paludicola (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), and a Review of Outbreaks between 1892 and 2003
William P. Haines, Mandy L. Heddle, Patricia Welton, and Daniel Rubinoff, 349-369

The koa moth, Scotorythra paludicola, is an endemic Hawaiian moth that undergoes sporadic outbreaks in koa forests in Hawai‘i, causing vast defoliations of its host plant, Acacia koa. We studied one such outbreak that occurred on East Maui in 2003, in which approximately 16 km² of forest were defoliated. We collected adult moths and larvae, and recorded size-class distribution of larvae in defoliated regions. Larvae at a given site tended to be of a similar size class, suggesting that outbreaks were synchronous, and mean development time from first instar to adulthood was 42 days under laboratory conditions. Mortality of field-collected, laboratory-reared larvae due to disease was high (80%), making it impossible to quantify meaningful parasitism rates, but three nonnative hymenopteran primary parasitoids were reared (the braconids Meteorus laphygmae and Cotesia marginiventris, and the ichneumonid Hyposoter exiguae). One ichneumonid hyperparasitoid, Gelis sp., was also reared. No native parasitoids were reared. We found no relationship between occurrence of five koa moth outbreaks on East Maui between 1920 and 2006 and annual or monthly precipitation or temperature during that period.

Short-Range Movements of Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from Nesting to Foraging Areas within the Hawaiian Islands
Denise M. Parker, George H. Balazs, Cheryl King, Larry Katahira, and William Gilmartin, 371-382

Hawksbill sea turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata, reside around the main Hawaiian Islands but are not common. Flipper-tag recoveries and satellite tracking of hawksbills worldwide have shown variable distances in post-nesting travel, with migrations between nesting beaches and foraging areas ranging from 35 to 2,425 km. Nine hawksbill turtles were tracked within the Hawaiian Islands using satellite telemetry. Turtles traveled distances ranging from 90 to 345 km and took between 5 to 18 days to complete the transit from nesting to foraging areas. Results of this study suggest that movements of Hawaiian hawksbills are relatively short-ranged, and surveys of their foraging areas should be conducted to assess status of the habitat to enhance conservation and management of these areas.

Growth and Distribution of the Macroalgae Gracilaria salicornia and G. parvispora (Rhodophyta) Established from Aquaculture Introductions at Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i
Stephen G. Nelson, Edward P. Glenn, David Moore, and Brendan Ambrose, 383-396

Gracilaria salicornia and G. parvispora were introduced to the south reef of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i, in the past 15–20 yr for aquaculture development. Both species have naturalized on the reef. Gracilaria salicornia is now considered an invasive species on O‘ahu due to its tendency to grow in dense beds that produce undesirable windrows of thalli on the beach. There is also concern that it reduces biodiversity and degrades habitats of reefs. We surveyed the south coast of Moloka‘i, where both species were introduced, and measured biomass density, growth rates, and thallus nutrient contents of G. salicornia in established beds. Both species are found in the silt-laden, nearshore zone of the reef within 50 m of shore. Gracilaria salicornia grows in dense beds containing 475 g dry weight m⁻² of biomass, but growth rates are low, 0.03%–1.28% day⁻¹. Tissue nitrogen levels are low, suggesting that these populations are nitrogen limited. Nevertheless, populations of G. salicornia persist and grow slowly on the reef, whereas those of G. parvsipora are only found in areas of local nitrogen enrichment from anthropogenic sources. Currently, G. salicornia does not appear to be negatively affecting the reef ecology on Moloka‘i, because it is confined to the disturbed, nearshore zone. However, its ability to grow slowly and persist under low-nitrogen conditions allows it to form dense beds and suggests that it will eventually spread farther along the coast.

The Soils of Kiritimati (Christmas) Island, Kiribati, Central Pacific: New Information and Comparison with Previous Studies
R. J. Morrison and C. D. Woodroffe, 397-411

Kiritimati, the largest land area atoll in the world, is undergoing rapid population increase, and, given the isolation of the island, local food production will have to be expanded to support the residents. Two soils investigations were completed in the 1960s, but no additional information on the soil resources of the island has been produced since that time. In this study, 15 soil profiles were described and analyzed. Where possible, comparison has been made with previous work, and discussion of the soil-forming factors is presented. Results confirm that soils are weakly developed (Entisols) with relatively low organic matter contents and low water-retention capacity. These properties are expected from the age of the parent materials and the relatively dry climate of the island. Total elemental analyses show that the soils contain very low concentrations of potassium and important trace elements (iron, manganese, copper, and zinc), which will limit any plant production. Classification of the soils identified eight soil families, mainly separated on the basis of content of larger coarse fragments and soil moisture regime, including the influence of groundwater. Comparison with previous studies showed that although different nomenclature and classification systems were used, similar soil patterns were observed, and the soils of Kiritimati are relatively unique in the Pacific islands.

Review of Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from Hawai‘i and Adjacent Seamounts. Part 2: Genera Paracalyptrophora Kinoshita, 1908; Candidella Bayer, 1954; and Calyptrophora Gray, 1866
Stephen D. Cairns, 413-448

Nine deep-water primnoid octocoral species are described from Hawaiian waters, four of them as new species, bringing the total number of octocoral species known from Hawai‘i to 94. Candidella gigantea is reported for the first time subsequent to its original description from Fiji in 1889. To place the two new species of Calyptrophora in context, all 16 species in the genus are keyed and analyzed in a morphology-based phylogenetic analysis. Although the analysis did not support the species complexes and species groups established by Bayer, it did suggest two distinct clades based on characters such as the opercular cowl, inclination of the polyps, and cross section and sculpture of the basal scale spines.

Currently Known and Reported Discomycetes (Ascomycota) of Hawai‘i
George J. Wong and Richard P. Korf, 449-456

A species list of Discomycetes that occur in Hawai‘i has been compiled that includes all previously reported species in the literature. Comments are provided for reports if there are changes in nomenclature, author citation, or for taxonomic revisions based on reexamination of collections. Fifteen taxa, new to Hawai‘i, are reported. The list of accepted taxa includes a total of 47 species, one including two subspecies. Three previously reported species were misidentified and apparently do not occur in Hawai‘i. Three species formerly reported as Discomycetes are now excluded as Dothideomycetes. The relatively small number of species of Discomycetes recorded from Hawai‘i is probably due to lack of an exhaustive effort to survey this group of Fungi. Although some species are recorded as growing on endemic or indigenous host plants, species of Discomycetes were not designated as endemic or indigenous due to insufficient knowledge of species distribution and the wide range of variations in host preferences.

Association Affairs, 457

Pacific Science 63, no. 4: Special Issue on Archaeology and Historical Ecology in the Pacific Basin

Guest editors: Scott M. Fitzpatrick and Michiko Intoh

Introduction: Archaeology and Historical Ecology in the Pacific Basin
Scott M. Fitzpatrick and Michiko Intoh, 463-464

On the Rat Trail in Near Oceania: Applying the Commensal Model to the Question of the Lapita Colonization
E. Matisoo-Smith, M. Hingston, G. Summerhayes, J. Robins, H. A. Ross, and M. Hendy, 465-475

Presented here are the most recent results of our studies of Rattus exulans, one of the main commensal animals transported across the Pacific by Lapita peoples and their descendants. We sampled several locations in Near Oceania to determine distribution of R. exulans mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes in the region. We also obtained data regarding distribution of other introduced Rattus species to several islands in the Bismarck Archipelago. Our results suggest that there were multiple introductions of R. exulans to the region, which may suggest a more complex history for Lapita populations in Near Oceania.

Dynamics of Polynesian Subsistence: Insights from Archaeofauna and Stable Isotope Studies, Aitutaki, Southern Cook Islands
Melinda S. Allen and Jacqueline A. Craig, 477-506

Human colonists of Remote Oceania readily took advantage of the naive virgin fauna encountered on previously uninhabited islands, a bounty that was quickly depleted. Subsequent developments in Polynesian subsistence economies were more subtle, varied, and complex. These features are illustrated in a comparison of two quite different subsistence archives from the postcolonization period: archaeofaunal assemblages and stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) records of humans, pigs, and dogs from the same archaeological contexts. The samples come from four stratified sites, with a total of 22 distinct occupational strata that represent a 600-year period on the small (18.4 km²) almost-atoll of Aitutaki in the southern Cook Islands. Benefits and challenges of integrating these quite different records are considered in the context of specific findings, with implications for subsistence studies elsewhere. In particular, differences in formation processes, taxonomic resolution, and contrasting spatial and temporal scales represented by each record are highlighted. A complex, multiscalar picture of subsistence change emerges, showing variability within and across the three species and the two subsistence archives. Findings support prior interpretations that established (not colonial) settlements are represented by the currently known Aitutaki archaeological record. Within the relatively stable and largely anthropogenic food web, humans occupy a central position throughout the sequence. Through time, a reduction in fishing and decreased consumption of marine carnivores is indicated; these changes are likely to be an outcome of both repeated storm events and considerable shoreline disruption in the fourteenth century A.D., and cultural decisions about the relative costs and benefits of various fishing activities vis-à-vis other subsistence needs. An apparent reduction in variability of pig diets in late prehistory could reflect interspecific competition between pigs and their human managers, although small sample sizes constrain interpretations. Overall, use of two quite different subsistence archives provides a more robust, but also more complex, view of subsistence change across individuals and communities on Aitutaki.

Volcanism and Historical Ecology on the Willaumez Peninsula, Papua New Guinea
Robin Torrence, Vince Neall, and W. E. Boyd, 507-535

The role of natural disasters has been largely overlooked in studies of South Pacific historical ecology. To highlight the importance of rapid-onset natural hazards, we focus on the contributions of volcanism in shaping landscape histories. Results of long-term research in the Willaumez Peninsula on New Britain in Papua New Guinea illustrate the wide range and complexity of potential relationships between volcanic activity and human responses. Despite frequent severe volcanic impacts, human groups have responded creatively to these challenges and over time may have developed particular strategies that coped with the demands of repeated refuging and recolonization.

Archaeological Investigation of the Landscape History of an Oceanic Atoll: Majuro, Marshall Islands
Toru Yamaguchi, Hajime Kayanne, and Hiroya Yamano, 537-565

Historical ecology has provided the field of geoarchaeology in Oceania with the concept of an island landscape as a historical product, invented from the dynamic interactions between natural processes and human agency. Since Davidson’s work in Nukuoro (1971) and Dye’s introduction to the prehistory of Majuro in the Marshall Islands (1987), systematic excavations of atoll islets have also been based on this tenet. Following this concept, this study presents a geoarchaeological examination of the long-term history of the pit-agricultural landscape in Laura Islet of Majuro Atoll, which now consists of 195 pits showing remarkable undulation and anthropogenic vegetation on their spoil banks. Our excavations, conducted since 2003, have revealed that human habitation on Laura began as early as 2,000 years ago, soon after the emergence of the core islet, which probably followed a relative drop in sea level in the late Holocene. Some centuries later, the inhabitants started excavating agricultural pits for the cultivation of wet taro, probably Cyrtosperma spp. The subsequent sea-level decline would have enlarged the foraminiferal sediment; the islet then extended its landform both oceanward and lagoonward as well as along the longitudinal axis stretching north to south. The land accretion caused its inhabitants to increasingly extend their activity space and readjust areas for habitation. It would also have enlarged the volume of the freshwater lens, prompting additional construction of agricultural pits even in the area just behind the lagoonside beach ridge. Most of the current landscape was formed by around 1,000 years ago at the latest. Geoarchaeological synthesis of Pacific atolls will enable the precise elucidation of local chronological relationships between land accretion and expansion of human activities.

Historical Ecology in Kiribati: Linking Past with Present
Frank R. Thomas, 567-600

Compared with “high” islands, atolls and table reefs have received little attention from archaeologists focusing on historical ecology in Oceania. Limited archaeological investigations in the three archipelagoes composing the Republic of Kiribati (Gilbert, Phoenix, and Line Groups) reflect primarily culture historical reconstructions. Given the unique environmental challenges posed by coral islands, their potential for prehistoric ecological research should be recognized. By contrast, the last 50 years have witnessed a host of environmental studies, from agricultural improvements to sea-level rise and contemporary human impact on terrestrial and marine resources. In an attempt to better understand the influence of natural and human-induced processes in the more distant past, this paper explores several themes of relevance to coral islands in general. These include (1) natural and anthropogenic change on geomorphology and ecosystems, (2) anthropogenic impacts on faunal resources, (3) environmental evidence for human colonization, (4) interisland exchange networks and population mobility, and (5) social evolution.

Revisiting Rapa Nui (Easter Island) “Ecocide”
Terry L. Hunt and Carl P. Lipo, 601-616

Easter Island (Rapa Nui) has become widely known as a case of “ecocide,” where the ancient Polynesians recklessly destroyed their environment and, as a consequence, suffered collapse. In recent publications, both popular and academic, scholars have promoted this perspective, drawing upon archaeological evidence and offering Rapa Nui as a parable for our current global crisis. In this paper we address recent claims and outline emerging archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence. We consider chronology, causes and consequences of deforestation, agricultural strategies, statue transport, and the evidence for ancient population size and its demise. Although deforestation and ecological catastrophe certainly unfolded over the course of the island’s prehistory, the ensuing demographic and cultural collapse followed European contact and resulted from the devastating effects of disease and slave trading. Deforestation and contact-induced demographic collapse were separated in time and causation. Finally, we offer alternative perspectives emerging from a variety of recent research.

A Long-term Perspective on Biodiversity and Marine Resource Exploitation in Fiji’s Lau Group
Sharyn Jones, 617-648

I present research investigating biodiversity and human interaction with the local environment through three perspectives on diverse islands in Fiji’s Lau Group. First, I generated long-term data on marine diversity and exploitation through zooarchaeological analyses of fauna from sites spanning the region’s prehistoric human occupation. The study areas are representative of regional fauna and local geographic variation in island size and structure. Each island also varies in terms of human occupation and degree of impacts on marine and terrestrial environments. Second, my ethnographic work recorded modern marine exploitation patterns by Lauan communities. Third, marine biological surveys documented living faunas. Together this information is used to explore the marine environment over the three millennia of human occupation. Using data derived from my multipronged study I discuss potential causes of ecological change in this tropical marine setting. My findings include the following: (1) data indicate that relative intensity of human occupation and exploitation determines modern composition and biological diversity of marine communities because human disturbance occurred more extensively on larger islands than on smaller islands in Lau; (2) Lauans appear to have targeted similar suites of marine fauna across their 3,000 years of history on these islands; (3) Lauans have had a selective effect on marine biodiversity because particular species are/were targeted according to local standards of ranking and preference; (4) marine resources existing today have withstood over 3,000 years of human impacts and therefore may have life history traits supporting resilience and making conservation efforts worthwhile.

“Good Water and Firewood”: The Island Oasis of Isla Cedros, Baja California, Mexico
Matthew R. Des Lauriers, 649-672

Today, Isla Cedros is remote from major population centers of northwestern Mexico and the American Southwest, but before European contact and throughout the Colonial Period, it was a well-known location to both indigenous peoples and Europeans. Today, a local fishing cooperative shares the island with a massive Mitsubishi Corporation/Mexican government–owned salt-transshipment facility. Far from representing a cautionary tale of excessive development and environmental degradation, Isla Cedros is one of the few places on the globe where human harvesting of marine resources has not yet resulted in an ecological collapse. It is a place where paradoxes abound and allows an alternative view of human interaction with marine and insular ecosystems. Both short- and long-term environmental variation characterizes this ecologically transitional region, and the adaptability of both its human and nonhuman inhabitants presents insights into the possibility of a “commons” without tragedy. Issues of exclusive use rights, short-periodicity variation, localized effects on resources due to sea-level rise, and sustainable socioeconomic systems can be addressed in an examination of Isla Cedros, Huamalgua, the Island of Fogs. This island setting presents us with challenges to many underexamined assumptions. In essence, it refuses easy categorization, instead offering at least some alternative perspectives for future historical ecological research of broad relevance to coastal and island settings worldwide.

An Introduction to the Biocomplexity of Sanak Island, Western Gulf of Alaska
Herbert D. G. Maschner, Matthew W. Betts, Joseph Cornell, Jennifer A. Dunne, Bruce Finney, Nancy Huntly, James W. Jordan, Aaron A. King, Nicole Misarti, Katherine L. Reedy-Maschner, Roland Russell, Amber Tews, Spencer A. Wood, and Buck Benson, 673-709

The Sanak Biocomplexity Project is a transdisciplinary research effort focused on a small island archipelago 50 km south of the Alaska Peninsula in the western Gulf of Alaska. This team of archaeologists, terrestrial ecologists, social anthropologists, intertidal ecologists, geologists, oceanographers, paleoecologists, and modelers is seeking to understanding the role of the ancient, historic, and modern Aleut in the structure and functioning of local and regional ecosystems. Using techniques ranging from systematic surveys to stable isotope chemistry, long-term shifts in social dynamics and ecosystem structure are present in the context of changing climatic regimes and human impacts. This paper presents a summary of a range of our preliminary findings.

Fishing up the Food Web?: 12,000 Years of Maritime Subsistence and Adaptive Adjustments on California’s Channel Islands
Jon M. Erlandson, Torben C. Rick, and Todd J. Braje, 711-724

Archaeologists working on California’s northern Channel Islands have produced an essentially continuous record of Native American fishing and nearshore ecological changes spanning the last 12,000 years. To search for evidence of Pauly’s “fishing down the foodweb” pattern typical of recent historical fisheries, we analyzed variation in the dietary importance of major marine faunal classes (shellfish, fish, marine mammals) on the islands through time. Faunal data suggest that the Island Chumash and their predecessors focused primarily on low-trophic-level shellfish during the Early and Middle Holocene, before shifting their economic focus to finfish and pinnipeds during the Late Holocene. Replicated in faunal sequences from the adjacent mainland, this trans-Holocene pattern suggests that Native Americans fished up the food web, a strategy that may have been more sustainable and had fewer ecological repercussions. Emerging technological data suggest, however, that some of the earliest Channel Islanders focused more heavily on higher-trophic-level animals, including marine mammals, seabirds, and waterfowl. These data emphasize the differences between the primarily subsistence-based foraging strategies of ancient Channel Islanders and the globalized market-based fisheries of modern and historic times, with important implications for understanding the long-term evolution and historical ecology of marine ecosystems.

Impact of Human Colonization on the Landscape: A View from the Western Pacific
Glenn R. Summerhayes, Matthew Leavesley, and Andy Fairbairn, 725-745

In this paper we review and assess the impact of colonizing peoples on their landscape by focusing on two very different colonizing processes within the western Pacific. The first is the initial human colonization of New Guinea 45,000–40,000 years ago by hunter-foraging populations; the second is the colonization of smaller offshore islands of the Bismarck Archipelago, some 3,300 years ago, by peoples argued to have practiced agriculture: two different colonizing processes by two different groups of peoples with two different social structures practicing two very different subsistence strategies. The impact of these two colonization processes on the environment is compared and contrasted, and commonalities identified for the archaeological and vegetation record.

Epilogue: Changing Archaeological Perspectives upon Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands
Atholl Anderson, 747-757

Late-twentieth-century archaeological perspectives upon historical ecology in the Pacific islands emphasized anthropogenic impacts documented particularly in studies of vegetation change and deforestation, and the depletion or extinction of native faunas. More complex views of cultural-environmental relationships are now emerging. Biological invasions are seen as occurring more variably than in the transported landscapes model, simplistic narratives of cultural collapse are shown as only partly in agreement with relevant data, and models of behavioral ecology are argued as insufficient to explain long-term trajectories of ecological change. More influential roles are being proposed for climatic and demographic factors and cultural agency in ecological relations.

Association Affairs
759

Index to Volume 63
765

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