Pacific Science 59, no. 1
Hydrologic and Isotopic Modeling of Alpine Lake Waiau, Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i
Bethany L. Ehlmann, Raymond E. Arvidson, Bradley L. Jolliff, Sarah S. Johnson, Brian Ebel, Nicole Lovenduski, Julie D. Morris, Jeffery A. Byers, Nathan O. Snider, and Robert E. Criss, pp. 1–15
Abstract: Analysis of hydrologic, meteorologic, and isotopic data collected over 3 yr quantifies and explains the enormous variability and isotopic enrichment (<delta>18O = +16.9, <delta>D = 50.0) of alpine Lake Waiau, a culturally and ecologically significant perched lake near the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i. Further, a simple one-dimensional hydrologic model was developed that couples standard water budget modeling with modeling of <delta>D and <delta>18O isotopic composition to provide daily predictions of lake volume and chemistry. Data analysis and modeling show that winter storms are the primary source of water for the lake, adding a distinctively light isotopic signature appropriate for high-altitude precipitation. Evaporation at the windy, dry summit is the primary loss mechanism for most of the year, greatly enriching the lake in heavy isotopes.
Distribution of the Rough-Toothed Dolphin (Steno bredanensis) around the Windward Islands (French Polynesia)
A. Gannier and K. L. West, pp. 17–24
Abstract: The rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) has been described as a primarily pelagic cetacean species that is found in tropical and subtropical oceans throughout the world. Information on distributional patterns or habitat preference in most regions where S. bredanensis has been reported is limited. This study reports on the distribution of S. bredanensis around the Windward Islands of French Polynesia. Data were obtained from vessel surveys between 1996 and 2000, where rough-toothed dolphins were sighted 38 times. Group sizes of rough-toothed dolphins ranged between 1 and 35 individuals, with an average size of 10.8 individuals. When corrected for effort, results indicated that in French Polynesia S. bredanensis is found over a wide area but is more commonly distributed inshore than offshore. Rough-toothed dolphins were usually sighted 1.8 to 5.5 km from the barrier reef, in water depths between 1,000 and 2,000 m. Our results also demonstrate the year-round presence of this species around Tahiti and Moorea. Steno bredanensis has been reported in many oceanic archipelagos, and our findings may provide insight into preferred habitat and small-scale oceanographic conditions associated with regions where this cetacean species is relatively abundant.
Cephalopods in the Diet of Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Caught off the West Coast of Baja California, Mexico
Unai Markaida and F. G. Hochberg, pp. 25–41
Abstract: The lower beaks of 1,318 cephalopods from the stomach contents of 175 swordfish, Xiphias gladius, caught off the west coast of Baja California, Mexico, between 1988 and 1996 were analyzed. In total, 20 species of teuthoids, 4 octopods, and one vampyromorph were identified. Weights and lengths of cephalopods were estimated from the lower rostral lengths. Ommastrephid squids, primarily jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas of different maturing sizes, composed 60% by number and 82% by estimated weight. Three species of gonatids were identified and represented 22% by number. An unidentified species of Argonauta was the most abundant octopod, with 5.8% of the beak total. Ancistrocheirus lesueurii is recorded for the first time in the California Current. Distribution of cephalopods in the California Current and their size in the diet of other marine predators are discussed. The diet of swordfish was dominated by medium to large muscular squid species that probably are eaten in surface waters at night.
A Colorful New Species of Albericus (Anura: Microhylidae) from Southeastern Papua New Guinea
Fred Kraus and Allen Allison, pp. 43–53
Abstract: We describe a new species of Albericus from the northern slope of Mt. Simpson, in the Owen Stanley Range of southeastern Papua New Guinea. The new species differs from all other known species of the genus in having pale blue or pale green dorsal coloration with red punctations (light metallic green and burnt orange in preservative). It is further distinguished from its congeners in its combination of oblique lores, granular skin with a few tubercles, broad head, large distance separating the external nares from the eyes, and in features of its call. We also provide comparative morphological measurements for most other species of Albericus to supplement the paucity of such data in original descriptions and to assist with future diagnoses of other new species.
Odontocete Stranding Patterns in the Main Hawaiian Islands (1937–2002): How Do They Compare with Live Animal Surveys?
Daniela Maldini, Lori Mazzuca, and Shannon Atkinson, pp. 55–67
Abstract: In this study we (1) synthesized 65 yr of odontocete stranding data around the main Hawaiian Islands (1937–2002); (2) analyzed stranding patterns and trends over time; and (3) compared occurrence patterns based on sightings of live animals with stranding data and evaluated the compatibility of these data sets. From 1937 to 2002, 202 odontocete strandings were recorded by the National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Regional Office. Strandings increased through time due to increased reporting effort and occurred throughout the year. The four most common of 16 species reported were Kogia spp. (18%), spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) (15%), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) (11%), and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) (10%). The highest proportion of strandings was recorded on O‘ahu (48%), followed by Maui/ Lana‘i (24%), Kaua‘i (12%), Hawai‘i (11%), and Moloka‘i (5%). Comparison with four previously published live animal survey studies suggests that stranding records are a good indicator of species composition and yield reasonable data on the frequency of occurrence of species in the region they cover.
Abstract: There have been few studies that demonstrate a protective function of inking behavior of cephalopods. In this paper I report the use of ink pseudomorphs by adult Octopus bocki against predatory attacks from green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchlings. Turtles that attacked ink pseudomorphs ceased predation attempts whereas naive turtles attacked and ingested octopuses.
Review of Clupeotoxism, an Often Fatal Illness from the Consumption of Clupeoid Fishes
John E. Randall, pp. 73–77
Abstract: Poisoning from eating clupeoid fishes such as sardines and herrings (Clupeidae) or anchovies (Engaulidae), termed clupeotoxism, is widespread in tropical and subtropical areas of the world but rare. A fatal case occurred in Kaua‘i in 1978 from the consumption of the Marquesan Sardine (Sardinella marquesensis). This species has been replaced in abundance in the Hawaiian Islands by another import, the Goldspot Sardine (Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus). Onuma et al. (1999) obtained the head of a specimen of this sardine that caused a fatality in Madagascar and found that it contained palytoxin. Because bottom sediment was detected on the gills and in the esophagus, they concluded that the fish is a bottom-feeder, and the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis siamensis, known to produce palytoxin, the toxic organism. The sediment on the gills was more likely the result of the fish being dragged over the substratum by a seine. The Goldspot Sardine feeds on zooplankton, not benthic organisms. Therefore, a pelagic dinoflagellate is the probable producer of palytoxin.
Structure of Diatom Assemblages Living on Prop Roots of the Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) from the West Coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico
David Siqueiros-Beltrones, F. Omar López-Fuerte, and Ismael Gárate-Lizárraga, pp. 79–96
Abstract: Samples of epiphytic diatom assemblages found on prop roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) from four sites were collected at two tidal levels of exposure on two different dates from the cool season (autumn, spring). The overall floristic analysis yielded 171 diatom taxa, including 16 new records for the Baja California peninsula. Diversity estimates were among the highest ever measured for benthic diatoms using Shannon’s (mean H´ = 4.89) and Simpson’s (0.945) indices. Many species scored high on the Biological Value Index (BVI), thus reflecting their numerical importance within the assemblages. According to diversity values and overall species composition, all sampling sites represented a similar habitat consisting of three types of substrates: prop roots, epiphytic macroalgae, and sediments. These values are considered to represent stability in the diatom assemblages living on red mangrove prop roots. Thus, the conditions determined by periodic tidal exposure are not to be considered extreme. However, principal component analysis and similarity measurements indicated that the November and April assemblages could be discriminated on the basis of taxa distribution.
New Records of Butterflies (Lepidoptera) from the Eastern Caroline Islands, Micronesia
Donald W. Buden, Donald P. Sands, and W. John Tennent, pp. 97–103
Abstract: Twenty-three new locality records are presented for nine species of butterflies (Lepidoptera) from 11 islands and island groups in the eastern Caroline Islands, Micronesia. None is endemic; most occur widely in the Indo-Australian region and the islands of the western Pacific. The Lycaenidae were the most well represented family with at least eight species. The nymphalid Hypolimnas bolina was the most frequently encountered species, occurring on all 11 island groups. Pakin Atoll, which was visited on two different occasions for a total of 5 days, was the only island group visited during this study where butterflies were not seen.
Tetraplasandra lydgatei (Araliaceae): Taxonomic Recognition of a Rare, Endemic Species from O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands
Timothy J. Motley, pp. 105–110
Abstract: Tetraplasandra is a genus of seven species endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago. Recent field studies in the Ko‘olau Mountains on the island of O‘ahu have led to a taxonomic reevaluation of a rare species, Tetraplasandra lydgatei. The species, originally described in the late 1800s, was placed into the widespread, polymorphic species T. oahuensis in a subsequent treatment of the genus. Several morphological characters and varying ecological habitats distinguish the two species. Based on these differences T. lydgatei deserves formal taxonomic recognition. Furthermore, T. lydgatei was an uncommon species even when it was originally described. This may be due to the early human alteration of the dry and mesic Hawaiian forests for housing and agriculture and also that the species was always only an occasional component of the mesic ecosystem. Regardless of the reasons, the rarity of this species has been accelerated. Currently, only six individuals of T. lydgatei are known to exist, and conservation efforts to protect it are needed.
Abstracts of Papers from the Twenty-ninth Annual Albert L. Tester Memorial Symposium, 11–12 March 2004
Pacific Science Association, pp. 125-128
Pacific Science 59, no. 2
The PABITRA Project: Island Landscapes under Global Change
Dieter Mueller-Dombois and Curtis C. Daehler, pp. 133-139
Abstract: The Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) is a networkof the Ecosystem Division in the Pacific Science Association’s Task Force on Biodiversity. The PABITRA project seeks to develop a network of ocean-tomountain transects on islands across the Pacific to test hypotheses about biodiversity and promote sustainable use of island ecosystems under the influence of global change. A specific objective of PABITRA was to establish an oceanto-mountain transect in Fiji with major involvement of the resident islanders. Along this transect, a number of biodiversity study sites were to be selected for further research. The transect was established during two consecutive field workshops, from 18 November to 3 December 2002. Involved were 25 University of the South Pacific (USP) students, eight local faculty including Fiji Government and nongovernmental organization officials, and seven overseas collaborators. The outcome was documented in a 69-page illustrated report issued by the USP Institute of Applied Sciences as well as at a special symposium presented during the 20th Pacific Science Congress in Bangkok (17–21 March 2003) titled ‘‘Island Landscapes under Global Change: the PABITRA Project.’’ Seven papers presented by members of the Fijian PABITRA group are published here, following this introductory paper. In addition, five papers introducing PABITRA activities outside Fiji are included in this special issue. The PABITRA project is ongoing and it is hoped that these papers will stimulate broad interest and participation in PABITRA’s key objectives of promoting integrative resource management in Pacific Island environments.
Geology, Climate, and Landscape of the PABITRA Wet-Zone Transect, Viti Levu Island, Fiji
Roselyn Kumar, pp. 141-157
Abstract: The PABITRA Gateway Transect in Fiji covers most of the eastern part of Viti Levu, the largest island in the archipelago. Viti Levu is located exclusively on the Fiji Plate, a microplate between the giant Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate that has been moved counterclockwise within the past 42 million yr as a result of their oblique convergence. There is no secure geologic evidence that Viti Levu was ever in contact with part of Gondwana, despite the presence of Gondwana flora. The oldest rock series in the area is the submarine Eocene Wainimala Group, intruded in places by the Colo Plutonics. These are succeeded by the Medrausucu Andesitic Group, the Ba Volcanics, and the Verata Sedimentary Group, a Plio-Pleistocene group of sediments representing deltaic and shallow-water deposition in the southeast of the area. The modern Rewa Delta and associated alluvial flats compose the youngest rocks in the area. The geology of the six study sites within the PABITRA Transect is explained in detail. Being on the windward side of the island, the area’s climate is humid tropical, with the lowest temperatures and highest precipitation being associated with the highest elevations. A short account of the area’s landscape is given.
Abstract: The Monasavu catchment was selected as an additional study site for biodiversity assessment at the top of the PABITRA wet-zone landscape transect on Viti Levu. The site consists of upland rain forest with cloud forest and a freshwater lake. The lake was constructed to supply hydroelectric power. The biota of the area has been little studied, but initial surveys indicate that many endemic species are present. Construction of the hydroelectric dam has led to some conflicts between the Fiji Electric Company and local landowners around Monasavu. Nevertheless, the unique cloud-forest habitat and the desire of the landowners to sustainably utilize their resources and protect wildlife makes Monasavu an important addition to the PABITRA Gateway Transect.
Botanical Studies within the PABITRA Wet-Zone Transect, Viti Levu, Fiji
Gunnar Keppel, pp. 165-174
Abstract:Botanical studies along mountain-to-sea transects are a key component of the Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) project. For the Fiji PABITRA Wet-Zone Transect, it is suggested that four basic categories of biodiversity data (species inventory, plant community description, ecological data on the species and community level, and long-term monitoring) be collected within the seven biodiversity study sites (Mt. Tomaniivi/Wabu, Monasavu, Sovi Basin, Waisoi, Waibau, Savura, and Nasoata/Valolo Islands) covering an elevational gradient from sea level to 1,300 m. Currently, Sovi and Waibau are without data, except for vegetation descriptions based on aerial photographs. However, data from baseline surveys is now available for Sovi. Most of the data available on Mt. Tomaniivi/Wabu and Savura are extrapolated from collections and studies in adjacent areas, but in both areas data collection has recently begun. Only Waisoi and Nasoata/Valolo have species checklists and descriptions of the various plant communities, with ecological studies having been conducted only in the former. Because basic data (species lists, plant communities) are lacking in many areas, obtaining such data is a primary objective of PABITRA in Fiji. Other issues that should be considered are inclusion of other sites in the network of focal sites and a standardized way of data entry and basic data analysis.
Botanical Diversity at Savura, a Lowland Rain Forest Site along the PABITRA Gateway Transect, Viti Levu, Fiji
Gunnar Keppel, Jone Cawani Navuso, A. Naikatini, Nunia T. Thomas, Isaac A. Rounds, Tamara A. Osborne, Nemani Batinamu, and Eliki Senivasa, pp. 175-191
Abstract: Savura is one of the seven focal sites of the Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) Gateway Transect in Fiji. The site is composed of tropical lowland rain forest located in southeastern Viti Levu and consists of two adjacent watershed reserves, the Savura Forest Reserve and the Vago Forest Reserve. A total of 560 indigenous species (52% endemic) of vascular plants is recorded for this focal site. Savura has been chosen for the establishment of a large permanent plot of 12 ha following the methods proposed by the Centre of Tropical Forest Science (CTFS). This involves the recording of name, diameter at breast height (DBH), and precise location of every tree with 1 cm or more DBH. A total of 5,494 individuals with a total basal area of 2,752 m2 was recorded in the first 6,000 m2 of this CTFS/PABITRA permanent plot. The Myristicaceae (species of the genus Myristica) was the dominant family in numbers of individuals (14.4%) and basal area (35.6%). Tree ferns (Cyatheaceae [8.2% of individuals, 14.6% basal area]) and the Clusiaceae (8.6% of individuals, 12.8% basal area) are other major components. After this initial census, subsequent censuses will be carried out every 5 yr and should give insights on spatial dynamics, recruitment and mortality, and long-term changes in populations of tree species.
Nasoata Mangrove Island, the PABITRA Coastal Study Site for Viti Levu, Fiji Islands
R. R. Thaman, Gunnar Keppel, Dick Watling, Batiri Thaman, Timoci Gaunavinaka, Alifereti Naikatini, Baravi Thaman, Nemani Bolaqace, Etika Sekinoco, and Manasa Masere, pp. 193-204
Abstract: Nasoata Island is a predominantly mangrove island located near the outflow and delta of the Rewa River, Fiji’s largest and longest river. The river originates on the eastern slopes of Mt. Tomaniivi in the Central Highlands of Viti Levu. The island has been selected as an integral coastal site for Fiji’s PABITRA Gateway Transect. Information is provided on: (1) the reasons it was selected as a PABITRA site; (2) geographical, geological, climatic, and edaphic setting; (3) the vegetation; and (4) brief notes on the fauna, with particular focus on the avifauna. Because of its rich flora and fauna, Nasoata Island is an excellent ‘‘prototype’’ coastal and mangrove site for enhancing our understanding of the complexities of island biodiversity, both within Fiji and in relation to other small offshore islands within the broader PABITRA network.
A Framework for Socioeconomic Valuation of Biodiversity in the PABITRA Focal Sites in Fiji
Isoa Korovulavula, pp. 205-211
Abstract: In Fiji, one of the underlying causes of historical and current losses of biodiversity has been lack of recognition of the value of many biological resources. The Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) project provides an opportunity for integration of social and economic valuation of biodiversity. This is critical for any decision relating to management and conservation of biodiversity resources. Socioeconomic valuation of biodiversity can assist communities and policy makers to better understand the net benefits of managing and conserving biodiversity. This paper presents a framework that can be applied for valuing the socioeconomic attributes of biodiversity in the PABITRA focal sites. This framework has two components. First is the quantitative method of valuation. For this, environmental economics can be applied, in particular the use of nonmarket valuation methods. Second is the qualitative method. This is based on application of participatory economic valuation methods. This second method of eliciting economic values incorporates institutional, social, and cultural activities and equity issues at the village or community levels.
A Proposed PABITRA Study Area on Lauru Island, Western Solomon Islands
W. C. McClatchey, M. Q. Sirikolo, H. Boe, E. Biliki, and F. Votboc, pp. 213-239
Abstract: The island of Lauru (Choiseul) in the western Solomon Islands is a high (up to 1,060 m) mixed volcanic and limestone uplifted island, located between 6.5° and 7.5° S latitude and 156.5[degree] and 157.5° E longitude. The central part of the island is suggested for inclusion in the Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) system. The proposed area consists of the north-central coast, Mount Barokasa (850 m), Mount Maetabe (1,060 m), and the primary watershed systems that drain these mountains and the central plateau between them. Some of the concerns and expectations of traditional land owners and the Solomon Islands government are considered. These play important roles in any research activity and will be central to the success or failure of the project. The Solomon Islands, Lauru, and the specific study area are briefly described with synopses of previous research and current, preliminary research activities. Preliminary species checklists are given for plants and vertebrates in the area. Initially we propose to establish two transects, each passing through two biomes suitable for comparisons with similar biomes in other PABITRA sites: the tropical montane cloud forest of Mount Maetabe (the highest point in the island), and the lowland rain forests, between 200 and 500 m in elevation to the southwest of Susuka at the base of Mount Barokasa. The two proposed transects will stretch through two different watersheds, one of which has had traditional agriculture practiced in the coastal strand area and the other of which has had traditional agriculture practiced in the lowland forest of midelevations. A research agenda is proposed that will help achieve key objectives of developing local research capacity and internal biodiversity management systems while conserving traditional knowledge.
Kava Cultivation, Native Species Conservation, and Integrated Watershed Resource Management on Pohnpei Island
Mark Merlin and William Raynor, pp. 241-260
Abstract: For many centuries, the kava plant, Piper methysticum, a series of sterile clones of a truly wild Piper species, has been used in several high islands in remote Oceania, including Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia. Until modern times, its use on all of these islands was largely restricted to chiefly, priestly, and medicinal use. Because of colonial suppression and/or the use of other nonindigenous psychoactive drugs, its use was abandoned on some of these islands. On other islands, such as Pohnpei, its use has increased greatly, with substantial changes in rank, gender, motivation, time, and place. This steep rise in its use has resulted in a large increase in its cultivation. On Pohnpei, intensification of cropping in upland environments is largely responsible for more than 70% loss of the remaining native, tropical rain forest since 1975. This impact and other human activities endanger the unique upland biodiversity of this remote tropical island. Recent historical trends in forest exploitation, threats to biodiversity, and watershed disturbance on Pohnpei are discussed in this paper. The Watershed Conservation Plan and management benefits of the proposed Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) are emphasized with permanent plot establishment for long-term monitoring.
Complementing PABITRA High-Island Studies by Examining Terrestrial Plant Diversity on Atolls
K. W. Bridges and Will McClatchey, pp. 261-272
Abstract: The Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) studies are based on a network of high-island biodiversity sites. These sites are structurally and historically complex. The majority of Pacific islands, in contrast, are low atolls with a common and simple flora and structure. As a result, atolls may serve as ‘‘controls’’ that may provide a way to assess impact of the upland high-island ecosystems on coastal regions of Pacific islands. Atoll studies can complement the PABITRA network because the gateway sites are near each other or separated from one another by one or more atolls. Such an addition will enhance interpretation of high-island ecosystems and their coastal zones because ecosystem surveys can be conducted quickly and accurately in atoll environments. We present results from quantitative studies of plant diversity from seven islets at Ailinginae Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands and discuss the value of this methodology as a way to enhance interpretation of the PABITRA data.
Biological Assessment of Kahana Stream, Island of O‘ahu, Hawai‘i: An Application of PABITRA Survey Methods
J. M. Fitzsimons, J. E. Parham, L. K. Benson, M. G. McRae, and R. T. Nishimoto, pp. 273-281
Abstract: Aquatic biologists surveyed Kahana Stream on O‘ahu, Hawai‘i, during December 2001 and January, March, and May 2002 to provide a background of information before restoring water diverted from the headwaters of the stream since the mid-1920s. Kahana Stream has all but one species of macrofauna common in unaltered Hawaiian streams, but abundance and distribution of amphidromous species differ conspicuously. A single specimen of ‘o‘opu ‘alamo‘o (Lentipes concolor) was found near the headwaters; until recently, this species was regarded as extinct on O‘ahu. Only two individuals of the freshwater limpet (hıhıwai, Neritina granosa) were found, and the brackish-water limpet (hapawai, Neritina vespertina) was not observed. Construction of the Waiahole Ditch Tunnel about 80 yr ago reduced the amount of water entering Kahana headwaters, and unimpeded growth of hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus) from the shore into the stream has slowed water movement in the middle and lower sections of the stream and estuary. Reduced flow has resulted in an extension farther inland of certain estuarine and lower-reach species (the prawn Macrobrachium grandimanus and fishes Eleotris sandwicensis and Stenogobius hawaiiensis). Alien fishes and larger invertebrates occur throughout Kahana Stream. Catches of newly hatched fish (S. hawaiiensis) and invertebrates (limited to crustaceans) moving downstream toward the ocean were meager. Recruitment of animals moving from the sea into the stream included only crustaceans and a single individual fish (S. hawaiiensis). Benthic algae were considerably more diverse than recorded for other O‘ahu streams. Hau removal and extensive trimming at key locations along Kahana Stream should precede the addition of water to the basin to avoid flooding and to enhance beneficial biological effects.
Abstract: Fundamental differences in life history patterns of most indigenous freshwater stream species on oceanic islands and freshwater species in continental stream systems require important differences in design of appropriate aquatic survey methodologies. As an example of these issues, use of Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) for describing island stream conditions are examined. Designed mainly for identifying optimal flow for salmonid fishes in the western United States, IFIM is difficult to apply to Hawaiian streams because of frequent flash floods in the Islands and because of the inherent difficulty of relating observed fish densities to total usable habitat in island streams. IBIs have been applied widely on the United States mainland as a technique for determining the health of a stream and aiding in stream fish conservation and management. Recently, there has been an attempt to establish an IBI for Hawaiian streams. Application of this technique to oceanic island streams raises a number of serious questions about the IBI’s validity for use in Hawaiian streams. Potential problems are inherent in the basic assumptions of the IBI. They result in unintended consequences when applied to oceanic island streams; examples include erroneously attributing naturally occurring differences in observed fish assemblages to human-induced environmental change, not accommodating differences in closed and open system dynamics linked to life cycles of indigenous stream species, and not understanding implications of low-diversity environments typical of remote oceanic islands. Past research on Hawaiian streams supports use of appropriate survey and analysis techniques such as those developed for the Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) for use among islands of the tropical Pacific.
The Kahana Valley Ahupua‘a, a PABITRA Study Site on O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands
Dieter Mueller-Dombois and Nengah Wirawan, pp. 293-314
Abstract: The acronym PABITRA stands for Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect, a network of island sites and conservation professionals collaborating throughout the Pacific-Asia region. An ideal PABITRA site is a broad landscape transect from sea to summit. Such a landscape is Kahana Valley on Windward O‘ahu. Kahana Valley served during prior centuries as an ahupua‘a, a Polynesian unit of land management that integrated the three biological resource zones, the upland forests, the agriculturally used land below, and the coastal zone, into a sustainable human support system. Results of terrestrial biodiversity surveys, as begun with a vegetation/environment study and a paleoecological investigation, are presented in relation to historical land use and sea level changes. In spite of the many former human-induced modifications of the Kahana Valley landscape, the natural structure and function of its ecosystems are well preserved. The distribution patterns of vegetation can be interpreted in terms of Hawaiian ecological zones in combination with the valley’s precipitation, topography, stream system, and archaeological features. Currently, efforts are under way to restore the Kahana State Park (recently renamed Ahupua‘a ‘O Kahana State Park) as a functional ahupua‘a. In addition, focused collaborative research can yield helpful information for further restoration and integrated management of the Kahana ahupua‘a as a historic Hawaiian Heritage Site.
Pacific Science Association, pp. 315-317
Pacific Science 59, no. 3
Ostracoda from Johnston Atoll, Pacific Ocean, and Proposal of a New Tribe, Bruuniellini (Myodocopina: Cylindroleberididae)
Louis S. Kornicker and Elizabeth Harrison-Nelson, pp. 323–362
Abstract: Two new species of Ostracoda (Myodocopina), Parasterope pacifica Kornicker & Harrison-Nelson and Bruuniella beta Kornicker & Harrison-Nelson, from Johnston Atoll are described and illustrated. The ontogeny of the latter species is also described. In addition, the name Bruuniella alpha Kornicker & Harrison-Nelson is proposed for Bruuniella species A, previously described by Kornicker from the western Atlantic; a supplementary description of the species is provided. A new tribe, Bruuniellini, in the subfamily Cylindroleberidinae, family Cylindroleberididae, is proposed to include the genus Bruuniella, and keys are given to the two tribes in the subfamily and to the four known species of Bruuniella. The adult male of a species of the genus Bruuniella is described for the first time.
Chromosome Numbers of Hawaiian Angiosperms: New Records and Comments
Michael Kiehn, pp. 363–377
Abstract: In this paper chromosome counts for 90 collections representing 67 native Hawaiian angiosperm species and eighthy brids in 22 families are presented and discussed. Included are the ﬁrst records for 26 species, two subspeciﬁc taxa, eight natural hybrids, and the endemic genus Pteralyxia (Apocynaceae). In four families Hawaiian representatives have been investigated cytologically for the ﬁrst time. For three species the investigations are the ﬁrst on Hawaiian material. Seven counts differ from earlier reports in the literature. Implications of the results are discussed in the context of autochthonous chromosomal evolution and of colonization events for the Hawaiian Islands.
Three Species of Intertidal Sea Anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniidae) from the Tropical Pacific: Description of Anthopleura buddemeieri, n. sp., with Remarks on Anthopleura asiatica and Gyractis sesere
Daphne Gail Fautin, pp. 379–391
Abstract: A new species of sea anemone, Anthopleura buddemeieri Fautin, is described from Fiji and Papua New Guinea. Occurring high in the intertidal zone, a typical individual has a column rich brown in color and marked with longitudinal rows of red spots. Occurring in the same habitat, at least in Papua New Guinea, is a sea anemone known in the tropical Indo-Paciﬁc from Aden to Hawai‘i, the valid name of which is Gyractis sesere. Some records of Anthopleura asiatica may refer to A. buddemeieri but some clearly do not; because the name appears to have been applied to more than one species, the original description lacks critical information, and no type material exists, the name Anthopleura asiatica is considered a nomen dubium.
Origin and Nature of Vessels in Monocotyledons. 6. Hanguana (Hanguanaceae)
Edward L. Schneider and Sherwin Carlquist, pp. 393–398
Abstract: Vessel elements from macerations of roots and stems of Hanguana malayana were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Vessel elements are present in both stems and roots. The vessel elements of roots are slightly more specialized than those of stems in having greater differentiation of perforation plates from lateral wall areas. Long areas of transition between lateral wall areas and perforation plates, consisting of 10 or more pits (arguably perforations) with porose membranes or threadlike pit membrane remnants, characterize vessel elements of both stems and roots of Hanguana. Tracheids may be present, but cannot be identiﬁed with certainty. The vessel elements of Hanguana are like those of Acorus (Acoraceae) in primitiveness and are among the most primitive recorded for monocotyledons. These facts are consistent with placement of Hanguana in a monogeneric family, rather than in Flagellariaceae or any other family of monocotyledons.
Rediscovery and Uncertain Future of High-Elevation Haleakala Carabid Beetles (Coleoptera)
Paul D. Krushelnycky, Rosemary G. Gillespie, Lloyd L. Loope, and James K. Liebherr, pp. 399–410
Abstract: Recent biotic surveys in subalpine shrubland on Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawai‘i, have resulted in rediscovery of several species of carabid beetles previously known only from their nineteenth-century type specimens. Blackburnia lenta (Sharp), described from specimens collected just below Haleakala summit in 1894, was found at lower elevational sites ranging from 2,400 to 2,750 m. Mecyclothorax rusticus Sharp, last seen in 1896, and M. nubicola (Blackburn), collected only in 1878, were also rediscovered in that vicinity. Recent collections of B. lenta contradict the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s previous classiﬁcation of this species as one likely to be extinct. Nevertheless, B. lenta’s known distribution comprises only 145 ha within an elevational zone that is bounded above and below by unicolonial populations of the invasive alien Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr). The known recent collections of M. rusticus and M. nubicola also occurred outside the distributional range of the Argentine ant. Mature eggs held in the lateral oviducts of B. lenta females averaged 1.4x the volume of the largest eggs previously reported among 13 species of Blackburnia. We hypothesize that the giant eggs of B. lenta result from selective forces favoring large, well-nourished developing and hatched ﬁrst-instar larvae, consistent with a patchy distribution of suitable microhabitat and prey in the subalpine Haleakala landscape. The specialized life history of B. lenta, and coincidence of distributional limits of the three rediscovered carabid species with range limits of the Argentine ant populations suggest that all would be jeopardized by future distributional expansion of Argentine ant. These intersecting phenomena compel us to conclude that B. lenta, M. nubicola, and M. rusticus are appropriate candidates for I.U.C.N. threatened species designation, pending further studies of their geographic ranges and historical trends in abundance.
A Description of Fish Assemblages in the Black Coral Beds off Lahaina, Maui, Hawai‘i
Raymond C. Boland and Frank A. Parrish, pp. 411–420
Abstract: A series of scuba dives surveyed patches of black corals and their associated deep-reef ﬁsh community in the channel waters (50–73 m depth) of Maui, Hawai‘i. Most of the corals were identiﬁed as Antipathes dichotoma and averaged 76 cm (±0.37) in height. Forty ﬁsh taxa were surveyed in the patches. Only Oxycirrhites typus was found exclusively within these coral trees. Sixty percent of the ﬁsh taxa surveyed were observed to frequent and pass through the coral branches. However, only four ﬁsh species were documented to reliably take shelter in the coral branches when evading an approaching diver. An archival video monitored movement patterns of ﬁshes around a cluster of black coral trees for a 60-hr period. During daylight hours Dascyllus albisella, Centropyge potteri, Forcipiger ﬂavissimus, Aulostomus chinensis, and Canthigaster jactator were observed to be the routine users of the coral patch, but only Dascyllus albisella and Centropyge potteri appeared to be resident to speciﬁc trees. At night Sargocentron sp. were observed feeding around the base of the coral trees, and Heniochus diphreutes dropped from their daytime position high in the watercolumn to hide in the tree branches throughout the night. These observations indicate that black coral trees are used by many ﬁshes as a general form of habitat, and if the coral trees are the largest relief feature at a site, their removal will likely impact the ﬁsh assemblage.
Influence of Mineralogy and Geological Setting on Trace Metal Concentration within Subtropical Weathered Profiles, Bells Creek Catchment, Queensland, Australia
Tania Liaghati, Micaela Preda, and Malcolm Cox, pp. 421–438
Abstract: The effects of mineralogy and geological setting on trace metal concentration and distribution within six weathered proﬁles developed sandstone and mudstone was assessed. Primary minerals occurring in the weathered proﬁles are quartz, plagioclase, and K-feldspar. Kaolinite is the most dominant secondary mineral followed by mixed layers of smectite-illite, illite, hematite, siderite, and occasional calcite. Metal concentrations within fresh and weathered samples were investigated by two methods of digestions: HF-based digestion and aqua regia. Results revealed that V and Cr are largely present in the primary aluminosilicate matrix and are not easily available to the environment; however, Cu, Zn, and Pb are present in extractable forms and readily leached. Iron occurs in both primary minerals and insoluble secondary minerals such as hematite. The mineralogical study also showed that drill hole material with more clay minerals tends to contain higher metal concentrations, demonstrating that mineral composition is the major control over trace metal content. Spearman’s rank correlation matrix also conﬁrmed the role of mineralogy on trace metal concentration (e.g., V and Cr correlated with kaolinite and Pb correlated well with mixed layers of illite-smectite). Effect of geological setting on trace metal concentration was assessed by examining the geomorphological location of drill holes with respect to paleochannels, surface topography, and water table position. Results revealed that depth of burial of the weathered proﬁle does not have an important effect on weathering and trace metal composition of samples. However, samples located on ﬂatter rain and with shallow water table are more prone to leach metals. Factors controlling degree of chemical weathering and subsequent trace metal distribution are summarized in order of importance: mineralogy > geological setting (topography and parent rock type) > water table depth > depth of proﬁle burial.
Revision of the Hawaiian Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Athecata)
Stephen D. Cairns, pp. 439–451
Abstract: Four species of stylasterids are described from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Kure to Kaua‘i) at depths of 293–583 m, including three new species: Distichopora asulcata, Stylaster griggi, and S. infundibuliferus. In addition, specimens of Distichopora anceps were observed and collected, showing it to be the most common macroinvertebrate on the northwestern slope of Laysan Island but not known from any other Hawaiian locality. Its description was amended to include branching colonies with up to 20 lobes; a suggested ontogeny of these growth forms is illustrated. Also, unique sexually dimorphic features of both male and female ampullae of D. anceps are described.
Chromosome Numbers of Angiosperms from the Juan Fernández Islands, the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago, and from Mainland Chile
Michael Kiehn, Marion Jodl, and Gerhard Jakubowsky, pp. 453–460
Abstract: Chromosome counts for eight native species in six genera from Juan Fernández Islands, ﬁve native species in three genera from Tristan da Cunha, and three species in two genera from mainland Chile are presented and discussed. They include the only chromosome number reports for angiosperms from Tristan da Cunha and ﬁrst counts for the endemics Robinsonia thurifera and Wahlenbergia larrainii ( Juan Fernández), Agrostis carmichaelii, Acaena sarmentosa, A. stangii, and Nertera holmboei (Tristan da Cunha), and for Galium araucanum and Ourisia coccinea from Chile. Counts for Eryngium bupleuroides and Galium hypocarpium differ from earlier published reports.
Sightings of Dwarf (Kogia sima) and Pygmy (K. breviceps) Sperm Whales from the Main Hawaiian Islands
Robin W. Baird, pp. 461–466
Abstract: Sightings of dwarf (Kogia sima) and pygmy (K. breviceps) sperm whales in Hawaiian waters have only rarely been reported. As part of boat-based surveys of odontocete cetaceans around the main Hawaiian Islands between 2000 and 2003, Kogia were observed on 18 occasions. Kogia were sighted most frequently in deeper portions of the study area (mean depth, 1,425 m) and in calm sea conditions (mean Beaufort sea state, 0.8). Thirteen of the 14 groups identiﬁed to species were dwarf sperm whales, the sixth most common species of odontocete documented around the main Hawaiian Islands. One group of six dwarf sperm whales containing two mother-infant pairs did not dive for more than a few minutes at a time. Most groups were difﬁcult to approach, but photographs of several individual dwarf sperm whales showed distinctive marks on the dorsal ﬁns, demonstrating that individual photo-identiﬁcation is possible with this species.
Blainville’s Beaked Whale in New Caledonia
Philippe Borsa and Daniel Robineau, pp. 467–472
Abstract: Blainville’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) was positively identiﬁed in the waters around New Caledonia from two strandings, one live sighting, and two rostra collected from the seaﬂoor. This is the only species of Ziphiidae reported so far from the New Caledonian archipelago and adjacent waters.
Pacific Science Association, pp. 473-476
Pacific Science 59, no. 4
Distribution and Diversity of Fiji’s Terrestrial Herpetofauna: Implications for Forest Conservation
Clare Morrison, pp. 481–489
Abstract: In 2003 The Wildlife Conservation Society attempted to evaluate the conservation status of Fiji’s natural forests including identifying a series of biological provinces (based on the distribution and endemism of a number of terrestrial taxa) in which some form of conservation area would need to be established or maintained. A combination of literature surveys, consultations with local researchers, and targeted field surveys was used to identify herpetological provinces within Fiji. With the exception of the iguanas (restricted to dry forest habitats), the frogs, and one of the skink species (restricted to wet forest habitats), the herpetofauna of Fiji is widespread in terms of both geography and habitat type and consequently there are no real distinct species assemblages or communities. Based on areas with the highest levels of herpetofauna species richness and endemism, forest reserves need to be established or maintained on Yadua Taba, Taveuni (particularly the northern and eastern sides), Ono-i-Lau, Ovalau, Gau, Rotuma, and the Monasavu area of Viti Levu to maximize conservation of herpetofauna diversity. Because there are gaps in the knowledge of geographic distributions of species resulting from incomplete surveys of several areas of the country, further targeted surveys are needed to completely evaluate the distribution of all herpetofauna species in Fiji.
Tree Mold Evidence of Loulu Palm (Pritchardia sp.) Forest on the Kona Coast, Hawai‘i
Deborah Woodcock and Nicholas Kalodimos, pp. 491–498
Abstract: Lava flows at Pu‘uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park on the island of Hawai‘i contain tree molds identified as native loulu (Pritchardia sp.) palms on the basis of gross morphology and surface features and patternings. The vegetation is reconstructed as loulu forest with an admixture of dicot species, represented by branched molds. Occurrence of loulu forest at ~1000 B.P. (calibrated radiocarbon dates on charcoal from beneath the flow) suggests that these palms persisted into the early period of Polynesian settlement on the Kona coast and that Pritchardia was an important component of precontact vegetation in this area.
Microclimate and Nest-Site Selection in Micronesian Kingfishers
Dylan C. Kesler and Susan M. Haig, pp. 499–508
Abstract: We studied the relationship between microclimate and nest-site selection in the Pohnpei Micronesian Kingfisher (Todiramphus cinnamominus reichenbachii) which excavates nest cavities from the mudlike nest structures of arboreal termites (Nasutitermes sp.) or termitaria. Mean daily high temperatures at termitaria were cooler and daily low temperatures were warmer than at random sites in the forest. Results also indicate that termitaria provided insulation from temperature extremes, and that temperatures inside termitaria were within the thermoneutral zone of Micronesian Kingfishers more often than those outside. No differences were identified in temperatures at sites where nest termitaria and nonnest termitaria occurred or among the insulation properties of used and unused termitaria. These results suggest that although termitaria provide insulation from thermal extremes and a metabolically less stressful microclimate, king-fishers did not select from among available termitaria based on their thermal properties. Our findings are relevant to conservation efforts for the critically endangered Guam Micronesian Kingfisher (T. c. cinnamominus) which is extinct in the wild and exists only as a captive population. Captive breeding facilities should provide aviaries with daily ambient temperatures ranging from 22.06 °C to 28.05 °C to reduce microclimate-associated metabolic stress and to replicate microclimates used by wild Micronesian Kingfishers.
Decline of a Population of Wild Seeded Breadfruit (Artocarpus mariannensis) on Guam, Mariana Islands
Gary J. Wiles, pp. 509–522
Abstract: Seeded breadfruit (Artocarpus mariannensis) was historically a dominant tree in native forests on Guam and Rota in the Mariana Islands. Censuses conducted during 1989–1999 showed a large decline in the population of this species in northernmost Guam, with the number of trees at one study area decreasing from 549 to 190 trees, or 65.4%. Mean annual decline rates were far higher from 1989 to 1996 (9.2% per year) than from 1996 to 1999 (2.6% per year). Size structure of the population was strongly skewed toward larger trees, with 83.3% of measured individuals having trunk diameters ranging from 31 to 70 cm. Virtually no seedlings or saplings were present. Experiments at this site revealed high rates of fallen seed and fruit consumption and browsing on seedlings by introduced Philippine deer (Cervus mariannus) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa). In contrast, breadfruit populations elsewhere on Guam and Rota exhibited much less mortality. One population in an area without deer and pigs displayed considerable regeneration and a size structure composed mainly of younger plants. The decline of A. mariannensis in northern Guam appeared to be caused primarily by a combination of high mortality associated with an unusually severe typhoon season in 1992 and a nearly complete lack of recruitment due to excessive seed predation and herbivory by deer and pigs. Ungulate control is strongly urged to restore populations of A. mariannensis and other native plants, and to prevent further alteration of Guam’s forests.
Pre-Mining Pattern of Soils on Nauru, Central Pacific
R. John Morrison and Harley I. Manner, pp. 523–540
Abstract: The environment of Nauru, a raised atoll located in the central Pacific Ocean (0° 32′ S, 166° 56′ W), was devastated by mining of phosphate “rock” during the twentieth century. Some 100 million tonnes of phosphate material has been removed, leaving more than 80% of the island as a dolomite pinnacle–dominated karrenfeld. Based on fieldwork examining sites unmined at that time, laboratory studies on undisturbed profiles, aerial photographs, and old mining maps, a picture of what the soil pattern on Nauru was before mining has been developed. Four major soil associations were identified: the coastal fringe carbonate-dominated soils set on a recent fringing reef; deep and relatively deep phosphate-dominated soils free of substantial influence from the underlying dolomite pinnacles occurring on the NE, NW, SE, and SW sectors of the uplifted section of the island (known locally as ‘‘Topside’’); a complex set of soils found on Topside and on the scarp where the pinnacle influence is important but containing some deep soils where phosphate material accumulated between the pinnacles; and a complex set of soils in low-lying areas around the old lagoon at Buada. Distribution of soils is discussed and physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the soils are presented. Soils were basically AC profiles, with coarse textures, free drainage, and limited moisture-retention capacities. Organic matter accumulated to various depths from about 5 to 50 cm. Soil pH was generally above 6, cation exchange capacities were closely aligned to organic matter contents, but trace element deficiencies would have been common. Cadmium concentrations were relatively high in Nauru soils. The soils are likely to have been of limited fertility, with moisture being a major limitation in many years. Classification of the soils indicated a dominance of Ustropepts and Ustolls, with smaller areas of Ustipsamments and Ustorthents, and very small areas of soils showing aquic features. The postmining situation is also discussed; only very limited areas of three of the original soil associations remain (the relatively deep profiles free of pinnacle influence have completely disappeared). Limitations to rehabilitation are also briefly reviewed.
Composition and Abundance of Benthic Macrofauna of a Tropical Sea-Grass Bed in North Queensland, Australia
David W. Klumpp and Seok Nam Kwak, pp. 541–560
Abstract: The aims of this study were to characterize the functional composition of benthic macrofauna of a tropical sea-grass bed and to determine temporal variations in abundance of benthic macrofauna in relation to environmental factors such as sea-grass biomass, temperature, salinity, and sediment type. Benthic macrofaunal composition and abundance were investigated by core sampler during April 1999, October 1999, March 2000, and August 2000 at three stations within a sea-grass bed at Cockle Bay in North Queensland, Australia. A total of 110 species of benthic macrofauna was collected. Polychaetes were the most abundant group (37 species; 52% of total macrofaunal numbers; 47% of biomass) followed by amphipods (27 species; 35% of total numbers). Decapods were also important, with 28 species contributing 31% of total macrofaunal biomass. Other miscellaneous groups were tanaids, isopods, and ophiuroids. Most amphipods (65%) and decapods (90%) were epifaunal, but polychaetes were equally represented by epifauna and infauna. Temporal variation in both species composition and abundance was large: the peak number of benthic macrofauna occurred in April 1999 and March 2000, and biomass was highest in April 1999. Benthic macrofauna numbers as well as biomass were lowest in August 2000. These temporal patterns of abundance of benthic macrofauna appeared to correlate closely with temporal variation of sea-grass biomass. In addition, the factors of life cycle and predation by common fish species may be indirectly associated with these patterns of macrofaunal abundance.
Abstract: As we seek to understand the physiological mechanisms of coral bleaching, it is important to understand the background temporal variation in photosynthetic pigments and photoprotective compounds that corals exhibit. In this study, reef flat populations of two hermatypic coral species, Montipora capitata (Dana, 1846) and Porites compressa Dana, 1846, were sampled monthly in Kane‘ohe Bay, Hawai‘i, from January 1998 to March 1999. Surface ultraviolet radiation (UVR) was measured continually during this time period at the same location. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of photosynthetic pigments and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) revealed temporal changes in concentrations and proportions of these compounds in tissues of both species of coral. Chlorophyll a (chl a), chlorophyll c2 (chl c2), peridinin, and diadinoxanthin concentrations changed on a skeletal weight (M. capitata) or surface area (P. compressa) basis, significantly correlating with seasonal changes in solar input (number of days from the winter solstice). In P. compressa, diadinoxanthin increased in proportion to the total pigment pool during summer months, suggesting an up-regulation of a xanthophyll cycle. In M. capitata, the ratio of chl a: chl c2 decreased during winter months, suggesting photoacclimation to lower light levels. It is surprising that there was not a clear seasonal pattern in total MAA concentration for either species, with the exception of shinorine in P. compressa. The relative stability of MAA concentrations over the course of the year despite a pronounced seasonal trend in UVR suggests either that MAAs are not performing a photoprotective role in these species or that concentrations are kept at a threshold level in the presence of a dynamic light environment.
Main Diatom Taxa in the Natural Diet of Juvenile Haliotis fulgens and H. corrugata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in Bahía Tortugas and Bahía Asunción, B. C. S., México
David Siqueiros-Beltrones, Sergio Guzmán del Próo, and Elisa Serviere-Zaragoza, pp. 581–592
Abstract: To determine the main diatom taxa found in the natural diet of Haliotis fulgens Philippi (green abalone) and H. corrugata Wood (pink abalone) juvenile specimens and loose rocks were collected from different depths at two sites in Bahía Tortugas and Bahia Asuncion, Baja California Sur. Overall 113 benthic diatom species were identified, and 98 taxa were recorded in the gut contents of both abalone species. Out of these 32 were not observed in the surrounding flora. Most diatom taxa were epiphytic forms, including the abundant taxa found in the gut contents of young abalone: Berkeleya fennica, Cocconeis speciosa, Cocconeis costata var. pacifica, Gomphonemopsis pseudexigua, Grammatophora marina, Navicula parva, Tabularia investiens, and Thalassionema nitzschioides. This somewhat reflected the structure of the diatom assemblages in the rocky habitat: few abundant taxa and many rare or uncommon ones, with heterogeneous values of diversity (H’) that ranged between 1.1 and 4.2 in the gut contents and from 2.83 to 3.91 in the surrounding flora. New records for the area include Cocconeis pseudomarginata, C. maxima (common), Licmosoma sp., Ardissonia formosa (rare), and the colonial form Berkeleya fennica (abundant), all found within the gut contents of abalone. The actual and potential diet of young abalone on the coast of Baja California Sur is extended to 235 taxa. The abundant taxa occurred frequently in clumps of numerous individuals in the gut contents, often still attached to algal tissue. The results of this investigation suggest that the importance of diatoms in the diet of larger juvenile abalone merits reassessment.
False Killer Whale Dorsal Fin Disfigurements as a Possible Indicator of Long-Line Fishery Interactions in Hawaiian Waters
Robin W. Baird and Antoinette M. Gorgone, pp. 593–601
Abstract: Scarring resulting from entanglement in fishing gear can be used to examine cetacean fishery interactions. False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are known to interact with the Hawai‘i-based tuna and swordfish long-line fishery in offshore Hawaiian waters. We examined the rate of major dorsal fin disfigurements of false killer whales from nearshore waters around the main Hawaiian Islands to assess the likelihood that individuals around the main islands are part of the same population that interacts with the fishery. False killer whales were encountered on 11 occasions between 2000 and 2004, and 80 distinctive individuals were photographically documented. Three of these (3.75%) had major dorsal fin disfigurements (two with the fins completely bent over and one missing the fin). Information from other research suggests that the rate of such disfigurements for our study population may be more than four times greater than for other odontocete populations. We suggest that the most likely cause of such disfigurements is interactions with longlines and that false killer whales found in nearshore waters around the main Hawaiian Islands are part of the same population that interacts with the fishery. Two of the animals documented with disfigurements had infants in close attendance and were thought to be adult females. This implies that even with such injuries, at least some females may be able to produce offspring, despite the importance of the dorsal fin in reproductive thermoregulation.
A New Species of Glossodoris (Mollusca: Nudibranchia), of the Glossodoris atromarginata Color Group, from Indonesia
Ángel Valdés and Mary Jane Adams, pp. 603–608
Abstract: A new species, Glossodoris tibboeli Valdes & Adams, is described based on three specimens collected from Para Island and several others observed at Para, Kahakitang, and Mahengetang Islands, north of Sulawesi, Indonesia. The species is characterized by being starkly opaque white, with a dark brown, irregular dorsal strip extending from the rhinophores to the gill. Because of the coloration and external morphology the new species is compared with members of the Glossodoris atromarginata (Cuvier, 1804) color group, from which it differs by lacking a dark line around the mantle margin. The radulae of all members of the G. atromarginata color group are similar but differ from that of the new species in lacking rachidian teeth.
Helminth Records from Eleven Species of Emoia (Sauria: Scincidae) from Oceania
Stephen R. Goldberg, Charles R. Bursey, and Robert N. Fisher, pp. 609–614
Abstract: As part of an ongoing study of the biogeography of helminth parasites of lizards from Oceania, 53 specimens of Emoia (11 species) were examined, as follows: E. atrocostata, E. boettgeri, E. caerulocauda, E. cyanogaster, E. cyanura, E. impar, E. nigra, E. nigromarginata, E. ponapea, E. sanfordi, E. trossula. One species of Digenea, Paradistomoides gregarium, and six species of Nematoda, Hedruris hanleyae, Maxvachonia chabaudi, Parapharyngodon maplestoni, Physalopteroides arnoensis, Spauligodon gehyrae, and Moaciria sp. indet., were found. These helminths have been reported previously from other lizard species. Seventeen new host records and eight new locality records are reported.
Pacific Science Association, pp. 615–619
Index to Volume 59