Pacific Science 55, no. 1
Dark Protein Synthesis: Physiological Response to Nutrient Limitation of a Natural Phytoplankton Population
Satoru Taguchi and Edward A. Laws, pp. 1-15
Abstract: Dark 14CO2 incorporation into protein was determined from 24-hr incubations using size-fractionated natural phytoplankton populations from Kane‘ohe Bay, Hawai‘i, enriched with either ammonium or ammonium plus phosphorus. Response to ammonium addition was maximum at an ammonium concentration of 3±4 µM. Dark 14CO2 assimilation was suppressed by addition of both ammonium and phosphorus, but percentage incorporation into protein was not significantly different from addition of ammonium alone. About 75 +/- 1% of the 14C taken up by the cells was incorporated into either protein or low-molecular-weight intermediate compounds. Cells smaller than 10 µm showed little response to nutrient additions. However, cells in the 10- to 35-µm size fraction incorporated significantly more 14C into protein when nutrients were added. C:N ratios calculated from the percentage of 14C incorporated into protein were most variable temporally in the 10- to 35-µm size group and least variable in the picoplankton (0.2- 2.0 µm). Nutrient limitation indices (NLIs) calculated from the quotient of C:N ratios in control and nutrient-enriched cultures were not significantly different for the picoplankton and 2- to 10-µm size fraction. The NLI for the 10- to 35-µm size fraction was significantly lower and implied a modest degree of nutrient limitation. The results suggest that cells smaller than 10 µm are growing at close to nutrient-saturated rates much of the time in Kane‘ohe Bay. However, larger cells appear to experience a significant degree of nutrient limitation at some times, particularly when chlorophyll a concentrations are less than about 1 mg m-3. Dark protein synthesis appears to be a useful modification of previous methods based on the dark uptake of 14CO2 for studying nutrient limitation.
Maximum Longevities of Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata Propagules
Judy Z. Drexler, pp. 17-22
Abstract: The longevity of viviparous mangrove seedlings (propagules) in seawater is a key factor determining their ability to survive dispersal both locally and across large expanses of ocean. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the maximum longevities of propagules from two common Pacific mangrove species: Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. and Rhizophora apiculata Bl. Propagules from each of these species were placed in outdoor tubs with continuously flowing seawater. The condition of each propagule was monitored until it sank or started to rot. Propagules were then planted to determine viability. After planting, 50% of R. apiculata propagules and 21% of R. mucronata propagules were viable. For both species, mortality of propagules was strongly related to the length of the floating interval. Maximum longevities for R. mucronata and R. apiculata propagules were 150 (median = 70) and 89 days (median = 7), respectively. Rhizophora mucronata propagules appeared to be better equipped for long-distance dispersal, yet had low survivorship that would decrease overall dispersal opportunities. In comparison, R. apiculata propagules had higher survivorship yet shorter longevity and, thus, appeared to be better equipped for shorter distance dispersal.
Mite (Acari) Communities Associated with ‘Ohi‘a, Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae), at Hono O Na Pali and Kui‘a Natural Area Reserves on Kaua‘i Island, Hawaiian Islands
Sabina F. Swift and M. Lee Goff, pp. 23-40
Abstract: Native ‘Ohi‘a trees (Metrosideros polymorpha) were sampled for mites at two natural area reserves on Kaua‘i Island, Kui‘a and Hono O Na Pali. Ninety samples of leaves, flowers, bark, leaf litter, and soil under the ‘Ohi‘a canopies were taken. Mites were extracted with use of Berlese-Tullgren funnels. One hundred sixty-four species were found, with the suborder Prostigmata having the greatest number of species (74), followed by Mesostigmata (43), Oribatida (43), and Astigmata with the least (4). Leaf litter, leaf litter with soil, and bark have the most species, composed of predaceous mesostigmatic and prostigmatic mites, but a certain amount of overlap of mite species between the leaf litter and soil habitats was observed. The predominance of Collembola in the soil and litter samples indicates a stable food source for the predaceous mites, partly explaining the high number of mites in those habitats. Oribatid mites were collected from leaves, but the species composition differs from that on flowers and litter. Preliminary residency status of identi®ed taxa shows 12% endemic, 17% adventive, and 71% of unknown status.
Abstract: A single specimen of the nemertean Baseodiscus hemprichii (Ehrenberg, 1831) was collected from Easter Island during August 1999. This represents the first record of the species on Easter Island, the first identified nemertean from that island, and extends the eastern boundary of the species’ range by approximately 4800 km.
A New Species of Mictognathus (Acari: Halacaridae) from the Great Barrier Reef
Jürgen C. Otto, pp. 43-46
Abstract: Mictognathus colemani Otto, n. sp., is described from the Great Barrier Reef. It is the third known species in its genus and the first species of Mictognathus known to occur in tropical waters. Distinguishing features are dorsal lamellae on the telofemora, membranous flaps on anterior and posterior dorsal plates, lack of distinct areolae or costae, relatively long median claws on all legs, and the lack of corneae. Some of these characters are similar to those of the mictognathine species Corallihalacarus chilcottensis, but it is unknown whether they indicate a close relationship. A key to species of Mictognathus is presented.
Four New Cardinalfishes (Perciformes: Apogonidae) from the Marquesas Islands
John E. Randall, pp. 47-64
Abstract: Four species of apogonid fishes are described as new from the Marquesas Islands. Apogon lativittatus, similar to A. semiornatus, differs in having 13 instead of 12 pectoral rays, 4.5-5.5 scales above the lateral line, 19-23 circumpeduncular scales, a straighter dorsal profile of the head, deeper body on the average, opaque red color as an adult with the same midlateral blackish stripe posteriorly on the body and caudal fin, but the oblique dark band on head reduced, and in larger size (to 58.4 mm SL); the type specimens include one from the Line Islands (A. semiornatus remains unknown from islands of Oceania). Apogon relativus, with five dark stripes and pink fins, is similar to A. angustatus, differing in having narrower stripes, a larger and vertically elongate black spot at midbase of caudal fin in adults, and a broader interorbital space (bony width 4.05-4.8 in head, compared with 5.0-5.95 for A. angustatus). Apogon sinus, collected in very shallow water at the head of deep bays, is uniquely colored with seven narrow dark stripes on the body, but none on the lower third of body anterior to the caudal peduncle; it is most similar to the wide-ranging allopatric A. taeniophorus, from which it differs in a deeper body (2.6-2.9 in SL, compared with 2.8-3.2), broader interorbital space (4.2-4.45 in head, compared with 4.5-5.35), and in having 16-17 instead of 17-19 gill rakers. Pseudamiops phasma is described from two specimens. Like the three other species of the genus, it is elongate and compressed, with deciduous cycloid scales, no lateral line, ventral spine posteriorly on the maxilla, and largely transparent body; it differs variously from the others, but from all in having 19 compared with 14-18 pectoral rays.
Recent Records of Exotic Reptiles on Pohnpei, Eastern Caroline Islands, Micronesia
Donald W. Buden, D. Brian Lynch, and George R. Zug, pp. 65-70
Abstract: Seven nonindigenous species of reptiles (two freshwater turtles, one gekkonid lizard, and four snakes) were recorded on Pohnpei and adjacent Ant Atoll (Federated States of Micronesia) for the first time within the past 15 yr, three within the past 3 yr. They apparently reached Pohnpei by deliberate or inadvertent human-assisted transport, originating from widespread and distant areas including North America, Southeast Asia, Indoaustralia, and other Pacific islands. Pohnpeians (and many other Pacific islanders) often do not perceive exotics as a potential threat to the balance of natural ecosystems. Additional training and education addressing the potentially disastrous consequences of alien species and directed especially toward agencies entrusted with monitorin environmental quality are recommended to help preserve biodiversity on these small island nations.
The Somatic Chromosomes of Sophora fernandeziana (Fabaceae), an Endemic Tree from Robinson Crusoe Island
Laura B. Stiefkens, Gabriel Bernardello, and Gregory J. Anderson, pp. 71-75
Abstract: The mitotic chromosome number and karyotype of Sophora fernandeziana (Phil.) Skottsb. (subfamily Papilionoideae) are reported for the first time. The chromosome number, 2n = 18, is the modal number reported for the genus. The chromosomes are small (average length 1.55 +/- 0.23 µm) and bear no satellites. The intrachromosomal and interchromosomal asymmetry indices were A1 = 0.26 and A2 = 0.18, respectively. This symmetrical karyotype is composed of 7 metacentric + 2 submetacentric pairs. This species is related to S. tetraptera J. Mill. from New Zealand. Both share the same chromosome number; unfortunately comparative karyotype data are not available for S. tetraptera. Our data suggest that no changes in chromosome number have occurred during the speciation of S. fernandeziana, in accordance with previous studies of other endemic species in the Juan Fernandez flora and for island endemics in general. However, only a small percentage of actual karyotypes of island endemics have been studied, so generalizations about chromosomal evolution for such species are not yet well founded.
Mollusk Habitats and Fisheries in Kiribati: An Assessment from the Gilbert Islands
Frank R. Thomas, pp. 77-97
Abstract: Biological and ecological attributes of 24 species of edible bivalves and gastropods from the Gilbert Islands Group, Kiribati, Micronesia, were assessed for their resilience by examining size at maturity, intertidal burying, adjacent subtidal populations, benthic mobility, and larval type. Foraging for mollusks is largely confined to the intertidal and shallow subtidal regions, although modern diving gear and outboard motors now provide human foragers access to offshore resources. Changes brought about by human demographic pressures have resulted in overexploitation of a number of molluscan resources. It is suggested that the sustainable use of invertebrates and other marine species for food and nonfood purposes in Kiribati rests on a remodeled form of marine tenure.
Pacific Science Assocation, pp. 111-115
Pacific Science 55, no. 2
Recent Extinct Land Snails (Euconulidae) from the Gambier Islands with Remarkable Apertural Barriers
Philippe Bouchet and Ahmed Abdou, pp. 121-127
Abstract: Based on study of material collected in the Gambier Islands (eastern Polynesia) by the 1934 Mangarevan Expedition and in 1997, two endemic species of Euconulidae are shown to exhibit apertural barriers unlike those of any other Pacific island limacoids, both in their ontogeny and development. The barriers are fully developed only in juveniles and subadults and are resorbed in full-grown individuals. Aukena, hitherto considered a subgenus of the Hawaiian-Polynesian genus Hiona, is elevated to genus rank. Aukena endodonta, n. sp., with six apertural barriers (one columellar, three parietal, two palatal), is described, and A. tridentata (Baker, 1940) is redescribed. The natural environment of the Gambier Islands had already been severely altered by 1934, and the two endemic species of Aukena are considered extinct. One other endemic euconulid without apertural barriers, Philonesia mangarevae Baker, 1940, survives in a small patch of native forest at the base of Mount Mokoto.
Inflorescence Damage by Insects and Fungi in Native Pili Grass (Heteropogon contortus) versus Alien Fountain Grass (Pennisetum setaceum) in Hawai‘i
Erin Goergen and Curtis C. Daehler, pp. 129-136
Abstract: The success of introduced invaders has often been attributed to their release from natural enemies. We compared rates of seed and ovule destruction by insects and fungal pathogens in an alien invader, fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum), and a declining native competitor, pili grass (Heteropogon contortus), to determine whether the invader experienced less damage from natural enemies. Inflorescences were sampled on O‘ahu from three sites on three dates, and seeds and ovules were inspected for insect damage or pathogen infection. Total seed and ovule destruction was significantly lower in alien fountain grass at all times and sites, with the exception of one sample date on Ka‘iwa Ridge when very little damage (<1%) was observed in either species. Total seed and ovule destruction ranged from 0.8 to 5% in fountain grass versus 0 to 61% in pili grass. Most seed and ovule loss in pili grass was caused by infection with the smut fungus Sporisorium caledonicum. Between 5 and 35% of pili grass inflorescences showed signs of smut infection. No fungal pathogens were noted on fountain grass. The low impact of natural enemies on seed production in alien fountain grass, relative to native pili grass, could confer a long-term reproductive advantage to the alien.
Antennatus linearis, a New Indo-Pacific Species of Frogfish (Lophiiformes: Antennariidae)
John E. Randall and Ronald R. Holcom, pp. 137-144
Abstract: Antennatus linearis is described as a new species of frogfish (family Antennariidae) from three specimens from the Hawaiian Islands, one from the Molucca Islands, one from Aldabra, and four from Mozambique and Natal, South Africa, the largest 60 mm standard length. It is distinct from the wide- ranging Indo-Pacific A. tuberosus in having a caudal peduncle, 9-10 instead of 11-12 (rarely 10) pectoral rays, usually all or all but one of the pectoral rays branched (usually all simple in A. tuberosus), longer and more widely spaced dermal spicules, and a longer second dorsal spine (10.5-13.4% SL, compared with 6.5-9.8% for A. tuberosus). It differs from the eastern Pacific A. strigatus and the Japanese A. flagellatus in having the illicium 1.55-1.95 times longer than the second dorsal spine (about equal to the second spine in A. strigatus, and about 3.6 times longer in A. flagellatus). It differs from all three species in its striking pattern of curving dark lines on the head and body.
Utility of RAPD Markers in Evaluating the Status of the Hawaiian Tree Fern Cibotium xheleniae
Timothy J. Motley and Clifford W. Morden, pp. 145-155
Abstract: Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers provide data consistent with the conclusion based on morphological characters that the recently named taxon Cibotium xheleniae is indeed of hybrid origin. This assertion is supported by (1) placement of C. xheleniae intermediate to the parent taxa, as determined by genetic similarity data; (2) location of C. xheleniae individuals on a clade intermediate to the parent species in the cladistic analysis; and (3) clustering of the C. xheleniae individuals between clusters of parental individuals in principal components analysis. Additivity of parental genetic markers in the putative hybrid ranged from 54 to 64%, providing additional though modest support for the hypothesized origin of C. xheleniae. Our results indicate that RAPD data can be of considerable value in assessing potential hybridity of individuals in naturally occurring populations.
Reproductive Biology of Three Land Hermit Crabs (Decapoda: Anomura: Coenobitidae) in Okinawa, Japan
Yukio Nakasone, pp. 157-169
Abstract: Reproductive ecological research on three land hermit crabs, Coenobita rugosus, C. purpureus, and C. cavipes, was conducted in the southern part of Okinawa-jima island in 1985, 1986, 1987, and for a short period in 1999. Size (carapace length) of the smallest ovigerous female was 3.93 mm for C. rugosus, 3.83 mm for C. purpureus, and 9.49 mm for C. cavipes. Breeding season is late May to November for C. rugosus, late May to mid-September for C. purpureus, and mid-May to late August for C. cavipes. Some females of all three species probably produced at least two broods during the breeding season. The smallest males in which spermatophores were present in dissected vas deferens were 4.24 mm for C. rugosus and 4.94 mm for C. purpureus. Coenobita cavipes females produced more, smaller eggs in comparison with C. purpureus. My observations suggest that coenobitid crabs living in areas with a low supply of shells or with poor shells reproduce at smaller sizes, as is the case in marine hermit crabs. Time of onset of larval release by C. rugosus, with its protracted breeding season, varied according to the seasonal shift in time of sunset. The period during which females of C. rugosus released larvae was about 2 hr in spring tides but was much longer (3 to 5 hr) during neap tides. Larger females of C. purpureus occupied shells derived from the land snail Achatina fulica; smaller ones used shells from the marine snail Lunella granulata. Use of mutually exclusive larval release site by the larger and smaller females of C. purpureus remained unchanged over 13 yr, from 1986 to 1999. This behavioral difference may be related to the differences in their habitats (i.e., inland versus shore) and to the route traveled by the larger crabs in reaching the sea from inland sites.
Age and Growth of the Leopard Grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, in the Southern Gulf of California, Mexico
J. Gabriel Diaz-Uribe, Juan F. Elorduy-Garay, and Ma. Teresa Gonzalez-Valdovinos, pp. 171-182
Abstract: Growth of the leopard grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets, 1877), was analyzed in its natural habitat. Age determination was based on the reading of otoliths, and the method was validated under three main criteria: (1) proportionality, (2) seasonality, and (3) concordance with another method. Otolith growth is proportional to organism growth, with a slight degree of allometry, and the otolith registers the growth of the individual, even at advanced ages. The opaque growth zone in the otolith is deposited once a year, between July and October. Thus, taken together, one opaque and one hyaline mark represent an annual cycle. Back-calculated lengths-at-age agreed reasonably well with observed lengths-at-age at the time of capture, considering that back-calculated lengths represent an exact age (birthday), and observed lengths are taken at an intermediate age between birthdays. Fish length and otolith age data were fitted to the von Bertalanffy growth function by two methods: (1) linear regression (Ford-Walford and Beverton), using transformed data, and (2) nonlinear regression, by iteration. Although the nonlinear regression gave a fit with unbiased error, parameters resulting from linear regressions had a better biological meaning for the species. The resulting parameters were compared with those reported for other species of the family Serranidae.
Cymbasoma tumorifrons (Copepoda: Monstrilloida): An Expanded Description Based on a New Collection from the Eastern Tropical Pacific
E. Suarez-Morales and C. Alvarez-Silva, pp. 183-189
Abstract: A female of the monstrilloid copepod species Cymbasoma tumorifrons (Isaac, 1975), previously known only from the Aegean Sea, was recorded in a bay of the Mexican tropical Pacific. The female of this rare species has not been recorded since its description more than 25 yr ago. To complement the brief original description, an expanded description and illustrations of this species are presented here based mainly on the Mexican specimen but considering also type material. Standards recently set for description of monstrilloid copepods were followed. Several characters such as chaetotaxy of legs 1-4, details of the antennular armature, cuticular ornamentation, and the fifth legs were overlooked in the original diagnosis and are described and analyzed here. This record supports an important range extension of the known distribution of this species from the Mediterranean Sea to the Mexican Pacific. It represents only the fourth record of a Cymbasoma species in the eastern Pacific.
Zooplankton Biomass Variability in the Mexican Eastern Tropical Pacific
Carmen Franco-Gordo, Enrique Godinez-Dominguez, and Eduardo Suarez-Morales, pp. 191-202
Abstract: The time and space distribution of zooplankton biomass recorded during a year cycle (December 1995-1996) off the Pacific coast of central Mexico is analyzed. Samples were obtained by surface (42-86 m) oblique hauls at 12 sampling sites using a Bongo net. The overall average displacement volume biomass of zooplankton during the surveyed period was 1138 cm3/ 1000 m3. Principal component analysis indicated that highest biomass concentrations occurred at coastal stations. The months with highest biomass values were those in which the lowest sea surface temperature values occurred ( January-May). This was the same period in which the California Current was strongest and clearly influenced the hydrological conditions of the surveyed area. In these months, advective processes are active along the outer shelf, favoring upwelling of colder, relatively nutrient-richer waters that promote an overall local increase of zooplankton activity and populations. The high variability of biomass values is indicative of episodic, localized processes that enhance productivity in the area.
Pacific Science Assocation, pp. 203-208
Pacific Science 55, no. 3
Abstract: Sergestes similis (Hansen, 1903) is a common mesopelagic vertically migrating shrimp common in the temperate and subarctic North Pacific Ocean. The species is a diel vertical migrator, although it remains primarily above the oxygen minimum layer in regions such as off California where the layer is well developed. This shipboard study with a computer-controlled swim tunnel provided the first continuous examination of this species’ swimming behavior and metabolism over a 24-hr cycle. Sergestes similis swam at a routine speed of around 4.4 to 4.95 cm sec-1. Burst speeds ranged from 14 to >20 cm sec-1. Swimming speeds during the day, at low temperatures simulating those at daytime depths, were similar to those at night at the higher temperatures characteristic of the surface. Night metabolic rates were higher than in the day, especially during the early night when most feeding activity may take place. Swimming speeds during times of simulated vertical migration averaged slightly faster than those of routine day or night swimming, averaging 6.2 cm sec-1 during the time of upward migration and 5.4 cm sec-1 during simulated downward migration, but the difference was not significant. Downward migration is not accomplished by passive sinking. Calculations based on observed swimming activities and metabolic rates indicate that vertical migration confers a clear metabolic energy savings to S. similis over remaining resident in surface waters, though this result may not be applicable to other vertical migrators and is likely moderated by decreased feeding opportunities at depth.
Review of the Fishes of the Genus Kuhlia (Perciformes: Kuhliidae) of the Central Pacific
John E. Randall and Helen A. Randall, pp. 227-256
Abstract: Ten species of fishes of the genus Kuhlia are recognized from Palau to Hawai‘i in the North Pacific and from Fiji to Easter Island in the South Pacific: K. malo (Valenciennes) from fresh water in the Society Islands; K. marginata (Cuvier) from fresh water in the western Pacific, east to Kosrae, Caroline Islands, and Fiji; K. mugil (Forster) (K. taeniura is a synonym) from most of the Indo-Pacific (not the Hawaiian Islands) and the tropical eastern Pacific; K. munda (De Vis) from fresh and brackish water in Fiji, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and Queensland (K. proxima Kendall & Goldsborough and K. bilunulata Herre are synonyms); K. nutabunda Kendall & Radcliffe from Easter Island; K. petiti Schultz from the Phoenix Islands, Malden Island, and the Marquesas Islands (Dules taeniurus marquesensis Fowler is a synonym); K. sandvicensis (Steindachner) from the Hawaiian Islands and other islands of the central Pacific; K. rupestris (Lacépède) from fresh water from East Africa to Samoa (K. caerulescens Regan from the Solomon Islands is a new synonym); K. salelea Schultz from fresh water in the Samoa Islands; and K. xenura (Jordan & Gilbert) from the Hawaiian Islands, with a mistaken type locality of El Salvador, Central America. The name K. sandvicensis has long been used for the common endemic species in the Hawaiian Islands; however, the original description leaves little doubt that it should apply to the species widely distributed in the central Pacific and only recently discovered in Hawai‘i; it has usually been misidentified as K. marginata. The endemic Hawaiian species therefore takes the only available name, K. xenura (Jordan & Gilbert). Kuhlia sandvicensis differs from K. xenura in having a smaller eye (3.0-3.45 in head length, compared with 2.55-2.95 for K. xenura), straight dorsal profile of the head of adults (concave in xenura); usually 14 pectoral-fin rays (usually 15 in xenura), usually 50 lateral-line scales (usually 49 in xenura), gill rakers 38-43 (35-39 for xenura), and a dark reticular pattern dorsally on the head in life.
Decapod Crustaceans of the Headwater Streams of Pohnpei, Eastern Caroline Islands, Federated States of Micronesia
Donald W. Buden, D. Brian Lynch, John W. Short, and Trina Leberer, pp. 257-265
Abstract: Two species of Macrobrachium (Palaemonidae) and three atyid shrimp (Atyidae) species were identified among 986 decapod crustaceans collected in headwater streams on Pohnpei, Micronesia, during 1999 and among incidental collections in 2000. None is endemic to the island; all are indigenous or at least not of recent human introduction, and all occur widely in the Indo-West Pacific region and have a diadromous life history pattern. Both Macrobrachium lar (Fabricius, 1798) and M. latimanus (Von Martens, 1868) are common in Pohnpei rivers, but M. latimanus outnumbers M. lar especially in the uppermost reaches. Atyoida pilipes (Newport, 1847) accounted for 72% of the atyid sample, and it was the only decapod recorded at elevations as high as 604 m; Caridina weberi (De Man, 1892) composed 21% of the sample and C. typus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) 6.4%. Ovigerous females were collected throughout the year for three of the five species; the absence of ovigerous Macrobrachium lar and Caridina typus during August-November was possibly due to small sample sizes. Freshwater shrimps do not currently form an important part of the diet of Pohnpei islanders, but historical accounts suggest that shrimps were utilized more in the past when imported foods and advanced technology for harvesting marine resources were not readily available.
Rediscovery of Talehsapia annandalei (Polychaeta: Pilargidae) in Songkhla Lagoon, Thailand
Sergio I. Salazar-Vallejo, Eijiroh Nishi, and Saowapa Anguspanich, pp. 267-273
Abstract: The pilargid polychaete Talehsapia annandalei Fauvel, 1932, has been rediscovered in its type locality and its taxonomic affinities are clarified. The genus is set off from remaining synelmins based on possession of palps completely fused and absence of tentacular cirri. The “jawlike” structure is rather a symmetrical, discontinuous pair of denticulated bands and is not a true jaw.
Links between the Southern Oscillation Index and Hydrological Hazards on a Tropical Pacific Island
James P. Terry, Rishi Raj, and Ray A. Kostaschuk, pp. 275-283
Abstract: River floods and hydrological droughts (low stream water resources) are a recurrent problem in different parts of Fiji, causing disruption and hardship for many rural communities. These extremes in fluvial behavior are associated with large seasonal variability in rainfall, generated by intense tropical storms in the wet season and prolonged rain failure in the dry season. Such conditions are linked to the influence of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Southwest Pacific. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is the climatic measure of the strength of ENSO activities and shows good correspondence with (1) tropical cyclone flood magnitude and (2) critically low stream discharges after a 2-month time lag, in two of Fiji’s main river systems. If ENSO conditions become more frequent or sustained in the future as some climate models suggest, then the SOI will be a useful tool for projecting in advance the severity of hydrological hazards, which can assist in disaster mitigation and management.
Impacts of Feral Livestock on Island Watersheds
Dirk H. Van Vuren, Michael L. Johnson, and Lizabeth Bowen, pp. 285-289
Abstract: We assessed the effects of overgrazing by feral sheep on watersheds on Santa Cruz Island, California. Overgrazing had a marked effect on stream flow; flows were much greater in overgrazed than in lightly grazed watersheds early in the rainy season, but the difference vanished later in the season. This pattern can be explained by reduced infiltration and increased surface runoff of rainfall in overgrazed areas. Thus, feral livestock may affect island species not only directly by grazing and trampling, but also indirectly by altering hydrologic processes and therefore species that are dependent on these processes.
Black Coral: History of a Sustainable Fishery in Hawai‘i
Richard W. Grigg, pp. 291-299
Abstract: The black coral fishery in Hawai‘i has been sustainable for the past 40 yr. The fishery began in 1958, shortly after its discovery off Lahaina, Maui, by Jack Ackerman and Larry Windley, who later formed the company Maui Divers of Hawaii. Since that time, the black coral jewelry industry has gradually expanded and is valued in Hawai‘i today at about $15 million at the retail level. In the 1970s, studies of the population dynamics of the major species established growth, recruitment, and mortality rates and led to the development of management guidelines including recommendations for a minimum size and maximum sustained yield. Results of a recent survey in 1998, reported in this paper, show that rates of recruitment and growth are near steady state and appear to account for the long-term stability of the fishery. However, recent technological advances and potential increases in demand could lead to increased rates of harvest. Should this happen, more stringent regulations may be required to avoid overexploitation of the resource.
Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) Sighted West of Ni‘ihau, Hawai‘i
Joseph R. Mobley Jr., Lori Mazzuca, Alison S. Craig, Michael W. Newcomer, and Scott S. Spitz, pp. 301-303
Abstract: A rare sighting of five killer whales (Orcinus orca), including one juvenile, occurred on 20 March 2000 during an aerial survey of waters west of the Hawaiian island of Ni‘ihau. The sighting occurred ca. 11 km west of Kamalino Bay on Ni‘ihau, at 21° 49′ N, 160° 20′ W. Killer whales are not unknown in Hawaiian waters, but the most recent confirmed sighting on record for Hawaiian waters was in 1979.
Vegetative Anatomy of the New Caledonian Endemic Amborella trichopoda: Relationships with the Illiciales and Implications for Vessel Origin
Sherwin Carlquist and Edward L. Schneider, pp. 305-312
Abstract: Light microscopy was used to study leaf hypodermis, vein sclerenchyma, stomatal subsidiary cell types, and root xylem in liquid-preserved material of Amborella trichopoda; oblique borders on tracheid pits, scalariform end walls on tracheids, and porosities in end-wall pit membranes were studied with scanning electron microscopy. Amborella shares stomatal configurations, nodal type (in part), ray types, and porose pit membranes in tracheary elements with Illiciales s.l., but differs from that order in lacking oil cells, vessels, and grouped axial parenchyma cells. These data are consistent with a basal position in angiosperms for Amborella, and for a close relationship with, but not inclusion in, Illiciales; inclusion in a monofamilial order is conceivable. Both loss of pit membranes or pit membrane portions on end walls and increase in cell diameter are requisites for origin of vessels. Sarcandra and Illiciaceae show these early stages in origin of vessels; Amborella shows development of porosities in pit membranes. Vessel presence or absence may not be strictly bipolar, because some primitive vessel elements exhibit at least some tracheidlike characteristics and are thus transitional, and because changes in at least two characters define vessel origin.
Pacific Science Assocation, pp. 313-317
Pacific Science 55, no. 4: Nature’s Empires: Museums and the Cultivation of Knowledge in the Pacific
Roy MacLeod, pp. 325-326
Naturalists’ Practices and Nature’s Empire: Paris and the Platypus, 1815-1833
Richard W. Burkhardt Jr., pp. 327-342
Abstract: Among the multiple interactions between governments and museums that were so important for the growth of natural history in the nineteenth century, perhaps none looked more promising at its inception than did the special “school for naturalist voyagers” that was instituted at the Museum of Natural History in Paris in 1819. Proposed initially by the French Minister of the Interior, who also promised to fund the operation, the idea of the school was to train young naturalists who could then be sent off to the far corners of the globe in search of plants, animals, and minerals useful to France and interesting to science. The professors of the Museum were enthusiastic about the Minister’s idea. However, aligning the interests of the naturalists at the Museum with those of the French government and a collection of young, aspiring naturalist voyagers was not an entirely straightforward matter. This paper considers the school for naturalist voyagers in the light of France’s prior experiences with naturalist voyages (most notably the Baudin expedition to Australia), her most pressing colonial needs in the early years of the Restoration, and the practices of the naturalists of the Paris Museum. The platypus makes an appearance here amidst a contest over the control of specimens. Finally, we consider notions of “the empire of nature” and what resonance such notions might have had at the Paris Museum at the time the school for naturalists was promoted.
Abstract: Between 1844 and 1860, Joseph Dalton Hooker, published a series of major floras of the southern oceans, including the first floras of Tasmania and New Zealand. These books were essential to establishing his scientific reputation. However, despite having visited the countries he described, Hooker relied on a large network of unpaid, colonial collectors to supply him with specimens. A study of his relationship with two of these collectors—Ronald Campbell Gunn and William Colenso—reveals warm friendships but also complex negotiations over individual authority, plant naming, and the status of local knowledge. The herbarium played a crucial role in mediating these negotiations. Although Bruno Latour’s theory of cycles of accumulation proved useful for analyzing the herbarium’s role, in this article some ways in which his ideas might be refined and modified are suggested.
Dangerous Objects: Changing Indigenous Perceptions of Material Culture in a Papua New Guinea Society
John Barker, pp. 359-375
Abstract: In this article I examine the ways that the Maisin people of Oro Province in Papua New Guinea have understood and deployed objects of their material culture over the course of a century of interactions with European outsiders. In the early years of the twentieth century, an Anglican missionary noted local attitudes toward certain significant objects. Some of these objects likely became part of a large collection he made for the Australian Museum. I compare his observations with my own, made in the course of ethnographic fieldwork some 70 years later. The comparison shows that Maisin during both periods identified certain objects as emblems of kinship identity and others as dangerous, as materials for sorcery. However, Maisin attitudes toward these and other objects have been strongly influenced over the decades through encounters and dialogues with outsiders, particularly missionaries in the past and, more recently, environmentalists and museum curators.
Abstract: In formerly socialist societies the state has dominated sites like museums viewed as critical for producing a national past, but in the case of the Russian Federation these same institutions often are being utilized now to critically examine the past. For many in the emerging market economy of the Russian Federation, formerly state-dominated sites like museums have become important economic resources as well as new sites for representing shifting concepts of history. In this article I examine the museum as an artifact of socialist and postsocialist society and consider how distinct political economies shape the ways in which cultural practices, as well as national and local histories, are depicted.
Factors Affecting the Distribution of Atyid Shrimps in Two Tropical Insular Rivers
Trina Leberer and Stephen G. Nelson, pp. 389-398
Abstract: We investigated factors affecting distribution of atyid shrimps, common inhabitants of insular freshwater ecosystems. Several abiotic and biotic variables were measured to determine their influence on atyid shrimp densities in two streams on the western Pacific island of Guam. Randomly selected sites, composed of three habitat types (riffles, runs, and pools), were surveyed in the rainy and dry seasons. We made visual counts of instream fauna in 2-m2 quadrats within each site. Various statistical analyses suggested that habitat type is a major factor affecting atyid distribution on Guam. However, results of a transplant experiment, conducted to test the effect of predators on atyid distribution directly, were noteworthy: no atyids remained in pools containing the transplanted jungle perch Kuhlia rupestris in the field. Our data indicate that both environmental factors and faunal interactions may be important influences on atyid distribution.
Gross Anatomy of the Digestive Tract of the Hawaiian Monk Seal, Monachus schauinslandi
Gwen D. Goodman-Lowe, Shannon Atkinson, and James R. Carpenter, pp. 399-408
Abstract: The digestive tract of a female juvenile Hawaiian monk seal was dissected and described. Intestine lengths were measured for a total of 19 seals ranging in age from1 day old to over 10 yr old. Small intestine (SI) lengths were measured for 10 seals and ranged from 7.1 to 16.2 m; mean SI to standard ventral length (SVL) ratio was 7.1 +/- 0.9 m. Large intestine (LI) lengths were measured for 11 seals and ranged from 0.4 to 1.2 m; mean LI:SVL was 0.5 +/- 0.1 m. Total intestine (TI) lengths were measured for 18 seals and ranged from 7.5 to 18.4 m; total intestine length to SL ratio was 7.9 +/- 1.3 m. SI and LI lengths both exhibited a linear relationship relative to SVL, whereas stomach weight:SVL showed an exponential relationship. TI:SVL was significantly smaller than ratios determined for harbor, harp, and northern elephant seals, but was not significantly different from those of crabeater, leopard, and Ross seals. No correlation was seen between gut length and body length for seven species of seals, including the Hawaiian monk seal.
Abstract: We assessed the risk to Hawai‘i’s native species and human quality of life posed by the introduction of alien snake species. An examination of Hawai‘i Department of Agriculture records from 1990 to 2000 indicated hundreds of credible snake sightings in the state, mostly of free-roaming animals that were not recovered. These snakes arrived primarily through smuggling of pet animals, but some snakes are accidentally introduced as cargo stowaways. Most recovered specimens are of species potentially capable of inflicting substantial harm to native birds and the poultry industry if they become established. Some may affect native freshwater fish. An analysis of the frequency with which snakes are smuggled into the state, the suitability of the local environment to snake welfare, and the ecological threats posed by recovered snake species leads us to conclude that snakes pose a continuing high risk to Hawai‘i. Mitigation of this threat can only be achieved by altering the human behavior leading to their widespread introduction. There are a variety of reasons why this behavior has not been successfully curtailed heretofore, and we propose a series of measures that should reduce the rate of snake introduction into Hawai‘i. Failure to achieve this reduction will make successful establishment of ecologically dangerous snakes in Hawai‘i a virtual certainty.
A New Species of Crangonid Shrimp of the Genus Philocheras (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Hawai‘i
Tomoyuki Komai, pp. 419-428
Abstract: Philocheras breviflagella, a new species of crangonid shrimp, is described and illustrated on the basis of a single ovigerous female collected from O‘ahu, Hawai‘i, at subtidal depth. The new species is most similar to P. sabsechota (Kemp, 1911) known with certainty only from the Andaman Islands, eastern Indian Ocean. It differs from P. sabsechota in several features, including the much narrower rostrum, the unarmed second lateral carina of the carapace, and the truncate posterior margin of the uropodal exopod. Other differences include the shorter fingers (each with an elongate unguis) of the second pereopod, and medially notched posterodorsal margins of the second and fourth abdominal somites. The new species is the first representative of the genus found to occur in the central Pacific.
Polydora and Related Genera Associated with Hermit Crabs from the Indo-West Pacific (Polychaeta: Spionidae), with Descriptions of Two New Species and a Second Polydorid Egg Predator of Hermit Crabs
Jason D. Williams, pp. 429-466
Abstract: Polydora and related genera associated with hermit crabs from shallow subtidal coral reef areas of the Indo-West Pacific are described. Over 2000 hermit crabs were collected from localities in the Philippines and Indonesia between July 1997 and April 1999. In total, 10 species of polychaetes among five genera (Boccardia, Carazziella, Dipolydora, Polydora, and Tripolydora) were identified and described. Adult morphology of these species was investigated with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The study includes the description of two new Polydora species, including the second known polydorid egg predator of hermit crabs. Six of the species burrow into calcareous substrata, living in burrows within live or dead gastropod shells or coralline algae attached to shells. Two species were found in mud tubes within crevices of gastropod shells inhabited by hermit crabs. The zoogeography and biodiversity of polydorids from the West Pacific are discussed. The diversity of polydorids from the Philippines is comparable with that of other central Pacific and Indo-West Pacific islands, but it is lower than that in areas of the North and Southwest Pacific; lower diversity probably reflects disparity in sampling efforts between these regions. A key to the Philippine polydorids is provided.
Pacific Science Assocation, pp. 467-472
Index to Volume 55