Pacific Science 18 (1964)

Pacific Science 18, no. 1

Observations of the Reproductive Cycles and Ecology of the Common Brachyura and Crablike Anomura of Puget Sound, Washington
Jens W. Knudsen, 3-33

Abstract: It was the aim of this research project to study the growth and reproductive cycles of the Puget Sound Brachyura and Anomura as they are related to oceanographic and environmental conditions. These goals were designed to answer many of the basic questions concerning the local crab population and to serve as a basis for more restricted physiological experimentation dealing with behavior and reproductive cycles. A continuous survey of the intertidal and near-shore crab fauna was made to determine the seasonal change in gonad development, egg production, the time of fertilization, deposition of eggs, and other related-features. As many species of Anomura and Brachyura as could be accommodated were captured and maintained in running sea water aquaria for additional studies of food and feeding habits, ecdysis, copulation, and other phenomena linked to maturity and reproduction. The aim to survey all Brachyura and Anomura in the southern Puget Sound area had to be modified to exclude the hermit crabs due to the extreme amount of time required for field observation of this group. It has been our goal to correlate reproductive activity of all of these species with annual environmental changes so far as possible and to determine trigger mechanisms involved in the reproductive cycles. Considerable experimentation was attempted along these lines as is discussed herein.

Some Pearlfishes from Guam, with Notes on Their Ecology
C. Lavett Smith, 34-40

Abstract: From October, 1960, to July, 1961, 230 specimens of pearlfishes were collected on the fringing reefs of Guam. Four forms are represented and their distinguishing features are discussed. These specimens were taken from four species of holothurians and from the armless starfish, Culcita nouaguineae. Carapus mourlani was found only in Culcita; the other three occurred in two or more hosts. Thelenota ananas, Stichopus chloronotus, and an unidentified Holothuria contained only one species each, but Holothuria argus served as host of three pearlfish species. Sea cucumbers that produce adhesive threads as well as those that do not were utilized as hosts. Over 100 specimens of Holothuria atra were opened without finding a single pearlfish. Although this species has been reported as a host, it is probably not a preferred one.

The most common species is Carapus homei, its usual host is Stichopus chloronotus. Tenuis larvae were collected from October through February. Repeated collections in the same area of Tumon Bay indicated that there was a decrease in the infestation rate after February. C. homei probably spawns in late summer, and the larvae assume the inquiline habit during the fall and winter months. Small samples from other parts of the island indicate that infestation rates vary with the locality. It is unusual to find more than one pearlfish in a single host, and the fish are not confined to the respiratory trees but are often found free in the body cavity. During the period when the tenuis larvae are present C. homei often feeds on the larvae of its own species, perhaps indicating that there is competition for hosts. This could account for the infrequent occurrence of more than one fish per host. Carapus homei also eats shrimp. Encheliophis gracilis, however, seems to feed on the gonads of its host. C. homei leaves the host at night and on four occasions was seen some distance from any probable hosts. The form called Carapus mourlani is structurally very similar to C. bomei but differs in having superficial melanophores. Since mourlani occurs only in Culcita and homei never does, there is a possibility that the observed differences are due to the effects of the host. Until this can be demonstrated experimentally it seems desirable to retain the name mourlani.

Notes on the Life History of Two Californian Pomacentrids: Garibaldis, Hypsypops rubicunda (Girard), and Blacksmiths, Chromis punctipinnis (Cooper)
Conrad Limbaugh, 41-50

Abstract: The range, life history, food, competitors, predators, and ectoparasitic cleaners of Hypsypops rubicunda and Chromis punctipinnis are considered. Both species exhibit elaborate prespawning and spawning behavior. Nest preparation and nest behavior of the garibaldis are discussed in detail.

Further Notes on the Identification and Biology of Echeneid Fishes
Donald W. Strasburg, 51-57

Abstract: Attempts to identify several small echeneid fishes revealed that some of the more useful adult characters are not present in the young. Specifically, disk length, pectoral fin rigidity, body and fin morphology, and scale size and number are features which change with growth. Certain meristic characters were found to be constant over the 14 to 640-mm length range considered, and were usable in identifying small specimens. This paper presents a key to the Echeneidae with further observations on their biology.

Morphogenesis of Tedania gurjanovae Koltun (Porifera)
Gerald J. Bakus, 58-63

Abstract: During the course of a study of the marine sponges of the San Juan Archipelago, Washington, the discovery of several specimens of Tedania gurjanovae Koltun (Koltun, 1958 :65 , fig. 20) was of special interest because of the opportunity provided to observe its larval metamorphosis. This species had been known previously only from the eastern part of the Tatar Strait, off Sakhalin, USSR, at depths of 60 to 100 m (Koltun, 1958, 1959) . The present specimens (No. 30, 58, 90, 112, lot 163) were dredged in depths of 73 to 198 m in President Channel and San Juan Channel, San Juan Archipelago, Washington, and now reside in this writer’s personal collection. An account of the morphology, larval metamorphosis, ecology, and taxonomy of the Washington population is given here.

Bathymetric Distribution of Chaetognaths
Angeles Alvariño, 64-82

Abstract: The present report on the vertical distribution of the Chaerognatha is based on a study of the collections of plankton made by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography expeditions in the Pacific (Fig. 1) and Indian oceans. Therefore, all the data included and discussed in this paper have been obtained by the author from studies and analysis of thousands of plankton samples from those oceans; and, when other sources of information are used in the discussion, the name and date of the corresponding authority and publication are given. The samples studied here that cover the Pacific and Indian oceans were taken at 140 m depth (oblique hauls), and at other various depths: 270,300, 363,600, 700 or 868 m (closing nets or vertical tows), down to 3000 m deep (mid-water trawls). The results obtained from these expeditions and from the material examined while studying the seasonal distribution of chaetognaths in the California waters, and also from previous work in the Atlantic, has made it possible to group the species of this phylum into several categories based on their distribution in depth.

Contributions to the Knowledge of the Alpheid Shrimp of the Pacific Ocean, IX. Collections from the Phoenix and Line Islands
Albert H. and Dora May Banner, 83-100

Abstract: This paper initiates a series of three studies in the continuing series on the alpheids from the central Pacific that are based primarily upon collections made under the auspices of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. In 1954 the senior author received a travel grant from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and Yale University that permitted him to collect alpheids from wide areas in the central Pacific. The grant was made as part of the tri-institution program (TRIPP) of those two institutions and the University of Hawaii for the increase of scientific knowledge of the Pacific.

The Correct Name for the Hawaiian Gossypium
Robert L. Wilbur, 101-103

Abstract: For almost a century the endemic Hawaiian Gossypium has been known as G. tomentosum. This species has received much attention especially in recent years since it has been thought by some to form together with the two American cultivated cottons, G. hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L., a small section of closely related species with a similar distinctive origin. The section is unique within the genus in that its three related species, as interpreted by Hutchinson, Silow, and Stephens (1947), are alloretraplaids reputedly having derived one genome from the diploid American complex and another from the group to which the Asiatic and African cultivated cottons belong. Naturally species with apparently as bizarre an origin as these three have been frequently discussed in the cytological, genetical, and phytogeographical literature. As a result the name G. tomentosum has become very well known indeed for the Hawaiian plant. Unfortunately for the sake of stability, this application of the name does not appear to withstand scrutiny.

Chromosome Homology in the Ceratobium, Phalaenanthe, and Latourea Sections of the Genus Dendrobium
H. Kamemoto, K. Shindo, and K. Kosaki, 104-115

Abstract: The Dendrobium genus comprises over 1,000 species of epiphytic orchids distributed over a vast triangular area connecting Indi a, New Zealand, and Japan, and including most of the tropical and subtropical land areas between 60 and 180 east longitude. This large genus has been subdivided into numerous sections on the basis of morphological characteristics (Holttum, 1957). Members of the Ceratobium, Phalaenanthe, and Latourea sections are distributed in New Guinea and surrounding areas. Both Ceratobium and Latourea are represented by at least 30 species each, while Phalaenanthe includes a relatively few species. Several species in these sections have been widely cultivated and extensively hybridized to produce the improved and popular horticultural varieties of today.

Pacific Science 18, no. 2

The Origin and Affinity of the Biota of the Kodiak Island Group, Alaska
Robert E. Vincent, 119-125

Abstract: Kodiak Island occupies an important biogeographical position. Situated along the northwestern border of the Gulf of Alaska, this island and its neighboring lesser islands have biogeographic relationships that radiate in three directions: westward along the Aleutian Islands, northward toward interior Alaska, and southeastward toward the temperate Pacific Coastal and Rocky Mountain regions of North America. The Aleutian and Bering Strait migration routes tend to funnel through this strategic area. Furthermore, the Island Group was probably severely glaciated during at least the later part of the Pleistocene. Karlstrom (1%0) found geological evidence of a small late Pleistocene refuge on southwestern Kodiak Island. Nearly all subsequent biota, besides that which may have persisted on the refuge or on nunataks, would have had to originate as reinvaders from adjacent land or sea areas. A third peculiar feature in addition to location and glacial history is the possible significance of major habitat change caused by an encroaching timber line across the northeastern part of Kodiak Island.

Nonmarine Mollusks of Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands
Norman J. Reigle, 126-129

Abstract: It has long been realized that the coral atolls and low islands of the Pacific possess a meager, limited, and characteristic snail fauna which are of little zoogeographical value (Pilsbry; 1900, 1916, Cooke; 1926). Cooke (1934) has described the terrestrial molluscan fauna of one of the typical lower islands; and recently Solem (1959) has listed the major molluscan elements of the atoll fauna.

New Records of New Caledonian Nonmarine Mollusks and an Analysis of the Introduced Mollusks
Alan Solem, 130-137

Abstract: The illustrated handbook of New Caledonian nonmarine mollusks issued by Franc (1957) has been supplemented by an annotated check list (Solem, 1961). Additional records are given by Solem (1960), and material collected by Borys Malkin between J uly and October 1958 is reported on here. A few notes on srecimens from other sources are included, particularly on two very puzzling shells omitted from Solem’s discussion (1960) to allow more critical examination. The location of cited materials is indicated by the following symbols: ANSP (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia), BPBM (Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu), CNHM (Chicago Natural History Museum). In each case the catalog number of the set is indicated to facilitate later efforts to consult the cited specimens.

Reproduction in the Aggregating Sea Anemone, Anthopleura elegantissima
Charles E. Ford, Jr., 138-145

Abstract: From a sample of 240 specimens of the aggregating sea anemone, Anthopleura elegantissima, collected a few miles north of the Golden Gate, males and females were shown to be distributed as unisexual aggregations on the rocks.

The degree of gonadal development was measured by taking the gonad index (the ratio of volume of gonads to wet weight of anemone) every month for nearly 2 years (1959 and 1960) . This showed an annual reproductive cycle, beginning in late fall or winter, and culminating in complete spawning of the population in late September.

Measurements of ovarian egg size during 1959 and 1960 corresponded well with the cycle as expressed by the gonad index.

Male and female cycles were not directly comparable on the basis of the gonad index, but identifiable males were observed over nearly the same periods as females, producing tailed sperm during the time when ovarian eggs were near their maximum size, and spawning at the same time.

Polydora and Related Genera (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Eniwetok, Majuro, and Bikini Atolls, Marshall Islands
Keith H. Woodwick, 146-159

Abstract: In a study of more than 250 specimens of spionid polychaetes collected at Eniwetok, Majuro, and Bikini atolls, Marshall Islands (1956 and 1957) five new and two known species were found.

One of the species (T. spinosa) is the type for a new genus, Tripolydora, which is closely related to Polydora, Pseudopolydora, and Boccardia by virtue of its modified fifth segment. It is unusual in having branchiae on the fifth segment, and the hooded hooks are trifid and begin on Segment 9. The other new species are Pseudopolydora corallicola, Pseadopolydora pigmentata, and Polydora tridenticulata from coral material, and Pseudopolydora reisbi from areas of pollution. The known forms, Pseudopolydora antennata Claparede and Polydora armata Langerhans, are considered in reference to the literature.

The ecologic and systematic positions of the seven species are discussed.

Redescription of Bolbella californica Allgen, 1951 (Enchelidiidae: Nematoda) with Notes on Its Ecology off Southern California
Gilbert F. Jones, 160-165

Abstract: Bolbella californica Allgen, 1951 (Enchelidiidae: Nematoda), the southern California species of the genus, is redescribed. A limited analysis based on 79 specimens is made of its intraspecific variation. As redescribed, B. californica may be distinguished from all other species of this genus by the number of esophageal bulbi, 9 to 10; no previously described species has more than 8 bulbi.

B. californica was collected from 18 locations on the southern California mainland shelf, in the depth range of 5.5 to 9.1 m. Bottom sediments at these locations were variable.

Occurrence of Two Species of Young Threadfin, Polydactylus opercularis and P. approximans, in the Offshore Waters of the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean
W. L. Klawe and F. G. Alverson, 166-173

Abstract: Two species of threadfin. (Polydactylus, Polynemidae) , occur along the Pacific coast of the Americas. P. opercularis ranges from the upper portion of the Gulf of California to northern Peru; P. approximans is found from southern California to northern Peru (Hildebrand, 1946; Berdegue, 1956). The two are known collectively as “bobo” by U. S. West Coast tuna fishermen who capture them for bait from Santa Maria Bay, Mexico, to the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador (Alverson and Shimada, 1957). Adults of both species commonly occur in inshore waters, where they are utilized for food by the indigenous human population. The juveniles, however, have often been found at a considerable distance offshore, where they are, on occasion, found in quantity.

Postlarval Scombroid Fishes of the Genera Acanthocybiurn, Nealotus, and Diplospinus from the Central Pacific Ocean
Donald W. Strasburg, 174-185

Abstract: Exclusive of the mackerels and tunas, whose commercial importance has caused them to be studied extensively, the early life history of scombroid fishes is poorly known. This is particularly true of the families Gempylidae and Trichiuridae, even though they are the bases for fisheries in Australia, South Africa, Madeira, and parts of Asia. There is also a paucity of lifehistory information about the non-schooling Scombridae. This paper describes young stages of the scombroid Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier and Valenciennes), the gempylid Nealotus tripes Johnson, and the trichiurid Diplospinus multistriatus Maul, all three belonging to monotypic genera. The first has a slight commercial importance (Iversen and Yoshida, 1957:370), the others may be considered rare species of no commercial value.

Identification of Leptocephalus acuticeps Regan as the Larva of the Eel Genus Avocettina
Grace L. Orton, 186-201

Abstract: Regan (1916: 140, pI. 7, fig. 5) based the description of a distinctive new eel larva, Leptocephalus acuticeps, on a single 47-mm specimen from the South Atlantic. He did not attempt to allocate this larva within the eel classification, but D’Ancona (1928: 109) and Bertin (1936:7) assigned it to the Congridae. Although no additional specimens of L. acuticeps appear to have been reported since the brief original description, Bertin re-examined the original larva and gave important supplementary information on it, and an additional illustration.

Some Aquatic Fungi Imperfecti from Hawaii
C. J. Anastasiou, 202-206

Abstract: Fresh-water hyphomycetes from tropical locations have been reported by Ingold (1956, 1958 , 1959, 1960) , Dixon (1959) , Greathead (1961) , Hudson (1961), Hudson and Ingold (1960) , and Nilsson (1962). Reports from the Pacific area include California (Ranzoni, 1953), and Japan (Tubaki, 1957, 1960; Suzuki and Nimura, 1960a, b; and Nimura, 1960).

The Fungi Imperfecti reported in this paper were collected from streams in the Na Pali Kona Reserve on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, during August 1961. Collections were taken from the Kokee, Waineki, Elekiniki, Kauaikinana, and Kawaikoi streams, and from roadside ditches. At that time the streams were full and foam and scum were abundant.

The Taxonomy of Polysiphonia in Hawaii
Ernani G. Meñez, 207-222

Abstract: An investigation of Polysiphonia collections from Oahu, Hawaii, Molokai, and Maui of the Hawaiian Islands has revealed the presence of seven species: Polysiphonia mollis Hook. & Harv., Polysiphonia pulvinata (Roth) J. Ag., Polysiphonia subtilissima Mont., Polysiphonia ferulacea Suhr., Polysiphonia yonakuniensis Segi, Polysiphonia flabellulata Harv., and Polysiphonia rhizoidea sp. nov. These seven species of Polysiphonia were recognized primarily by their morphological features.

Some characteristics of Polysiphonia which have not been previously used by monographers but which appear to be important criteria for delimiting specific entities are discussed. One of these is the presence of more than one secondary pit connection between adjacent pericentral cells, a condition present in P. rhizoidea and P. yonakuniensis but not in the other species mentioned above. The other is the presence of multicellular rhizoids, a condition which was observed only in P. rhizoidea. Previously, authors have accepted the rhizoids of Polysiphonia as being unicellular.

Generalized Titanomagnetite in Hawaiian Volcanic Rocks
Takashi Katsura, 223-228

Abstract: A ferromagnetic oxide mineral with spinel structure was separated from Hawaiian volcanic rocks ranging from basalt to trachyte. The chemical compositions of all the specimens have been arranged on an oxygen reaction line, and can safely be interpreted as the result of a process of either oxidation or reduction of material with composition on or near this line. In the trachyte the mineral was found to be highly oxidized titanomagnemite. The composition of Hawaiian titanomagnetites is compared with that of titanomagnetites found in Japanese volcanic rocks belonging to the calc-alkali rock series.

Recent Observations on Neck Extensions in Folliculinids (Protozoa)
Donald C. Matthews, 229-235

Abstract: Despite species variations, the process of folliculinid lorica formation is fundamentally similar (Penard, 1919; Andrews, 1923; Fauré-Fremiet, 1932; Dewey, 1939; and Das, 1947). In all a motile, nonfeeding stage becomes attached, secretes a sac and neck, and gradually metamorphoses into a sessile feeding stage characterized by peristomal lobes.

Pacific Science 18, no. 3

A Revision of the Genus Parapercis, Family Mugiloididae
George E. Cantwell, 239-280

Abstract: This study describes the genus Parapercis Bleeker and its 26 species. The descriptions are based on anatomical studies, each structure having been analyzed statistically to determine its variation within a species and its value in identification. An effort has been made to employ those characters with the least variation within species to establish possible affinities between species, to define species groups, and to determine relationships among them. The geographic range has been determined from actual specimens and the literature.

Notes on the Groupers of Tahiti, with Description of a New Serranid Fish Genus
John E. Randall, 281-296

Abstract: During 1956 and part of 1957 the author carried out research on the biology of groupers (Epinephelinae; Serranidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae) in the Society Islands, with the support of a fellowship from Yale University and the Bernice P. Bishop Museum.

Shell Selection and Invasion Rates of Some Pacific Hermit Crabs
Gordon H. Orians and Charles E. King, 297-306

Abstract: Three species of littoral hermit crabs from Horseshoe Cove, Bodega Head, Sonoma County, California, and three sublittoral pagurids from Chinimi Island, Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands, have been examined with respect to their shell selection and invasion rates.

Periodic removal of crabs from marked areas resulted in immigrations of surprising magnitude. By comparison of actual collection patterns with those predictable from the alternates of density dependence and density independence, there is an indication that the observed immigration rates result from density dependent dispersal. While our data are not conclusive, the method presented is of interest and of possible utility for examining problems of this nature.

Shell selection is discussed from the bases of both laboratory and field observations. Each of the species is shown to utilize the shells of different gastropods with different frequencies.

Finally, behavioral aspects are examined as they relate to the distribution of the California hermit crabs.

Some Marine Isopod Crustaceans from off the Southern California Coast
George A. Schultz, 307-314

Abstract: In the summer of 1962 the author identified isopods caught in the submarine canyons off the southern California coast by workers, of the research vessel “Valero IV” of the Allan Hancock Foundation of the University of Southern California. The results of that work have been published (Schultz, 1964). There were additional isopods collected during the voyage which were not part of the canyon fauna and they are considered in this paper. The specimens were taken from the benthic environment by means of an Orange Peel Grab or a Campbell Grab bottom sampler. Ten species were taken, 3 of which were new to science.

Some Bathyal Pacific Amphipoda Collected by the U.S.S. Albatross
J. Laurens Barnard, 315-335

Abstract: Several bathyal Amphipoda from the U.S.S. “Albatross” expeditions of 1888 onward (Holmes, 1908; Shoemaker, 1925) remained to be determined in the collections of the U.S. National Museum, and the results of their study are presented here. Increasing interest is being shown in faunas on bottoms of 200-2000 m. Although these depths comprise only 8.5% of the world’s sea-floor, they perhaps support the remnants of the ancient abyssal fauna occupying depths greater than 2000 m prior to the Tertiary cooling of the seas (Madsen, 1961; Barnard, 1961, 1962; and their bibliographies).

The Chaetognatha of the Monsoon Expedition in the Indian Ocean
Angeles Alvarino, 336-348

Abstract: This report deals with the chaetognaths collected by the “R/ V Argo” during the Monsoon Expedition in the Indian Ocean in 1960 and 1961. The Monsoon collections extended from about 8°S to 42°S (Fig. 1); that is, the region roughly limited by the Equatorial Countercurrent and the Subantarctic West Wind Drift ( the Indian Central waters extending to the Subtropical Convergence); and also the Indonesian seas and the South Australian waters. This report includes only data from the Indian Ocean. Data from collections made by the same Expedition in the Pacific have been added to the study of the chaetognaths of the Pacific. However, data derived from the Pacific are used here also in discussing the distribution of the species. The Monsoon Expedition covered in part the regions surveyed for chaetognaths by the Gazelle, Gauss, Sealark, Siboga, and Snellius expeditions, with the following exceptions: the Bay of Bengal, west coast of Ceylon, and waters of Somalia and eastern Africa.

Additional Records of Hawaiian Platyctenea (Ctenophora)
Donald C. Matthews and Sidney Townsley, 349-351

Abstract: In a previous paper (Matthews, 1954 :282) representative samples of all orders of Ctenophora were reported for Hawaii. Of these, the platyctenids were represented by only two immature specimens of Coeloplana dubosequii collected on the reef of the Hawaii Marine Laboratory on December 31, 1952. This small, pale, yellowish-green platyctenid has not been collected since, although the alga (Hypnea nidifica) on which it was found has been periodically examined. Also, continuous examination of spines of the slate-pencil urchin, Heterocentrotes mamillatus (viz. Utinomi, 1961 :116, pI. 58, no. 9), has failed to reveal platyctenids, although Dawydoff (1938: 161) reported having collected Coeloplana weilli on this urchin in the region of Ream (Gulf of Siam, Cambodia). It is rather ironical that, quite by chance, plaryctenids were taken in 1961 on the spines of the black urchin, Echinothrix diadema, collected from the sandy bottom in about 10 m of water at the seaward edge of Waikiki reef. Again, in January, April, and May 1962, and in April 1963, platyctenids were taken on E. diadema at about the same depth, near Buoy No.8, Kaneohe Bay, Oahu.

Pacific Science 18, no. 4

Thoracic Cirripedia from a Southeast Pacific Guyot
Victor A. Zullo and William A. Newman, 355-372

A Hypomaxillary Bone in Harengula (Pisces: Clupeidae)
Frederick H. Berry, 373-377

Abstract: The herring genus Harengula Valenciennes (as herein restricted) contains five bilateral pairs of bones in the upper jaw (Fig. 1A). Most other clupeid fishes contain three or four such pairs of bones: premaxillary, maxillary, and one or two supramaxillaries. The extra pair of bones in Harengula is here termed the hypomaxillary. The hypomaxillary also occurs in the clupeid genera Pliosteostoma Norman and Pellona Valenciennes, and its presence has been used to distinguish these two genera from other genera. The presence of the hypomaxillary in Harengula and its usefulness as a taxonomic character in separating Harengula from other closely related genera previously has been overlooked.

A Study of the Hatching Process in Aquatic Invertebrates. IX. Hatching within the Brood Sac of the Ovoviviparous Isopod, Cirolana sp. (Isopoda, Cirolanidae). X. Hatching in th e Fresh-water Shrimp, Potimirim glabra (Kingsley) (Macrura, Atyidae)
Charles C. Davis, 378-384

Native Hawaiian Cotton (Gossypium tornentosum Nutt.)
S. G. Stepbens, 385-398

Abstract: Although the wild cotton, Gossypium tomentosum Nutt., is one of the more common of the few endemic species which still survive on the coastal plains of the Hawaiian Islands, it remains relatively unknown to the geneticist. Elsewhere it has been grown with indifferent success in experimental culture. Under such diverse conditions as those found in the West Indies, southern Mexico, the U.S. cotton belt, and in greenhouse culture, it flowers sparingly and even less frequently sets seeds. As a consequence, experimental studies have been very restricted, and cytogenetic analysis has been confined almost entirely to the few crosses which have been made with annual forms of the related New World species, G. barbadense L. and G. hirsutum L. To the technical difficulties may be added the lack of representative collections of the species in culture. The few accessions studied have usually been obtained from the more readily available Oahu populations, and less frequently from Molokai. These have been supplied to cotton geneticists through the courtesy of resident Hawaiian botanists, J. F. Rock, O. Degener, A. Mangelsdorf, and others, and patiently resupplied as fast as the stocks in culture expired.

Spiders from Some Pacific Islands, Part V
B. J. Marples, 399-410

Abstract: A collection of spiders from various Pacific islands was entrusted to me for examination by the Director of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in Honolulu, to whom I am indebted. There were 146 tubes, mostly containing a number of specimens, and they had been collected by different people at different times from islands between New Caledonia in the west and Tahiti in the east. Five new species are described and also four allotypes, and a number of additions to faunal lists have been made. The islands, or island groups, will be mentioned in alphabetical order, and the descriptions given at the end. Unless otherwise stated the specimens are in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum.

Ciguatera and Other Marine Poisoning in the Gilbert Islands
M. J. Cooper, 411-440

Abstract: Among the animals that live in the sea are many that may be poisonous to eat; these animals include fish, sharks, crabs, molluscs, and turtles. Of all marine animals the most important are fish, which are for so many people an essential source of food. There are a number of different ways in which teleost fish may be poisonous. Some fish are naturally poisonous; puffers for instance are always toxic. Some species of fish can be poisonous at certain seasons; in Fiji there is a species of sardine which may be deadly poisonous in the later months of the year. A third type of poisoning is found where some fish are poisonous to eat when they are caught on certain reefs or parts of a reef, and yet when caught on other parts of the same reef, or on nearby reefs, are perfectly safe to eat. This type of poisoning, known as ciguatera, is common throughout the tropical Pacific, usually on oceanic islands and isolated reefs.

Studies in the Helminthocladiaceae, III. Liagoropsis
Maxwell S. Doty and Isabella A. Abbott, 441-452

Abstract: In the first paper in this series of studies of the Helminthocladiaceae (Dory and Abbott, 1961 ), we have shown that, in two species of Helminthocladia from Hawaii, the female reproductive structures are generally similar to those described by other workers for other species in the genus, and that vegetative structures such as internal cortical rhizoids may be used to distinguish at least the Hawaiian species. In the second paper of this series (Abbott and Dory, 1960) a new genus, Trichogloeopsis, was described as containing three species, one new and two transfers from the genus Liagora. They share a major character in common, that of sterile rhizoidal extensions of the gonimoblast, but again the three species may be distinguished from each other by their vegetative structures.

The Holothuroidea Collected by the Royal Society Expedition to Southern Chile, 1958-1959
D. L. Pawson, 453-470

Abstract: The holothurians collected by the Royal Society Expedition to southern Chile, totalling 180 specimens, are described. Ten genera (of which one is new) and ten species are represented. Neopsolidium n.g., type species Psolidium convergens (Herouard), is erected to accommodate those species in the genus Psolidium (sensu lato) in which the dorsal plates are reduced to a diameter of about 0.4 mm. The holothurian fauna of southern Chile is generalised, containing few restricted species, and sharing many elements with distant subantarctic islands and with Antarctica.

NEWS: Tenth Pacific Science Congress Papers, 474

Pacific Science 18, Index

471

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