Pacific Science 52, no. 1
Deaths and Entanglements of Humpback Whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in the Main Hawaiian Islands, 1972-1996
L. Mazzuca, S. Atkinson, and E. Nitta, pp. 1-13
Reports of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, that either died or were entangled in Hawaiian waters from 1972 through October 1996 were analyzed to determine age class (estimated from body length and/or notes), location, annual frequency, and seasonal distribution of occurrence. Using reports collected from the National Marine Fisheries Service Pacific Area Office and published news reports, 26 whales were identified and their records analyzed. Deaths and entanglements were predominantly of calves of the year. Greatest incidence of deaths and entanglements occurred off the islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, and O‘ahu during the month of February. Of the 26 reported cases, 19 animals were confirmed dead. In the majority of the cases cause of death was unknown. However, shark attacks appear to be a secondary cause of death subsequent to entanglement, perinatal death, calf abandonment, illness or unknown causes. The annual frequency of occurrence over the 25-yr period indicates an increasing trend of entanglement in natural fiber and synthetic lines since 1992 and a three-fold increase in death and entanglement occurrences related to human activity in 1996.
Status of Land Birds on Selected Islands in the Ha‘apai Group, Kingdom of Tonga
David W. Steadman, pp. 14-34
Based on fieldwork in 1995 and 1996, I assess the distribution, relative abundance, and habitat requirements of indigenous species of land birds on 13 islands in the Ha‘apai Group, Kingdom of Tonga. Among the islands visited, primary forest still exists only on the large (46.6 km2), high (558 m) volcanic island of Tofua. Vegetation on the 12 smaller (0.15-13.3 km2), lower (6-45 m) islands is dominated by a mosaic of active and abandoned agricultural plots, nearly all with an overstory of coconut trees. Because of cultivation practices, very little of this vegetation is reverting to secondary forest. Of the 15 resident species of land birds that survive on these islands, nine are widespread and at least locally common within Ha‘apai, although only four (Gallirallus philippensis, Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Halcyon chloris, Aplonis tabuensis) certainly or probably occur nowadays on all 13 islands. Three species (Gallicolumba stairii, Ptilinopus perousii, Clytorhynchus vitiensis) are extirpated or extremely rare on all islands surveyed except Tofua. Overall species richness and abundance of land birds are much greater on Tofua than on the other islands. This difference may be due more to the presence of primary forest on Tofua than to Tofua’s greater area and elevation.
Temporal Spawning Patterns of Several Surgeonfishes and Wrasses in American Samoa
P. C. Craig, pp. 35-39
Three coral reef surgeonfishes (Acanthurus guttatus, A. triostegus, A. lineatus) and two wrasses (Thalassoma quinquevittatum, T. hardwickii) spawned year-round in American Samoa. Spawning occurred in or adjacent to the channel draining the fringing reef at specific times of day: dawn (A. lineatus), daytime (T. quinquevittatum, T. hardwickii), or dusk (A. guttatus, A. triostegus); and spawning time tracked seasonal changes in day length. Egg predation was high for the surgeonfishes, but predation by piscivores appeared to be low.
Nonindigenous Ants Associated with Geothermal and Human Disturbance in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park
James K. Wetterer, pp. 40-50
Although the Hawaiian Islands lack indigenous ants, more than 40 exotic species have become established there, primarily in lowland areas, where they have been implicated in the extermination of much of the endemic Hawaiian fauna. In June to August 1994, I surveyed ants in the Kilauea Caldera region (elevation 1090-1240 m) of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park to evaluate the current range and potential impact of ants in this protected montane ecosystem. Ants were common in areas disturbed by geothermal or human activity, but rare in undisturbed forest. A total of 15 ant species was collected, including 10 “lowland” ant species that are generally restricted to elevations below 900 m in Hawai‘i. Pheidole megacephala and Anoplolepis longipes, major pest species in lowland Hawai‘i, occurred in very high densities in and around the geothermal area near the park headquarters. Paratrechina bourbonica and Cardiocondyla venustula, two cold-tolerant species, were the most common ants in a second geothermal area, the Puhimau hot spot, and in areas disturbed by human activity, including roadsides. Linepithema humile, a major pest species in drier highland areas, occurred only in and around park buildings. The geothermal areas and park buildings appear to serve as warm “habitat islands” that allow Ph. megacephala, A. longipes, and other lowland ants to extend their ranges to higher elevations. Colonization of geothermal areas by lowland ant species, such as Ph. megacephala and A. longipes, poses a threat to endemic Hawaiian species in those areas. Colonization of roadsides and other disturbed areas by more cold-tolerant ants, such as P. bourbonica, C. venustula, and L. humile, poses a more general threat to endemic Hawaiian species found at higher elevations.
Note on a Xenophorid (Gastropoda: Xenophoridae) Record from the Nasca Ridge, Southeast Pacific
Kent D. Trego, pp. 51-52
Three shells of a Xenophora species similar to X. peroniana kondoi Ponder are reported from the Nasca Ridge, Southeast Pacific.
A New Species of Megalomma (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellidae) from Phuket, Thailand
Eijiroh Nishi, pp. 53-60
Megalomma miyukiae Nishi, n. sp., occurred among dead coral rubble at Phuket, Thailand. This species has two to ten branchial eyes on the tips of radioles, a collar with developed ventral lappets, and free dorsal margins separated by a wide gap. Scanning electron micrographs show the fine structure of chaetae.
A Remnant Greensword Population from Pu‘u ‘Alaea, Maui, with Characteristics of Argyroxiphium virescens (Asteraceae)
Gerald D. Carr and Arthur C. Medeiros, pp. 61-68
Two unusual greenswords occurring on Pu‘u ‘Alaea in 1989 reportedly possessed vegetative features characteristic of the presumed extirpated species Argyroxiphium virescens Hillebr. One of these Pu‘u ‘Alaea plants flowered in August 1989, allowing detailed comparisons with preserved specimens of A. virescens as well as other species and hybrids of Argyroxiphium native to East Maui. These comparisons suggest that the unusual Pu‘u ‘Alaea greenswords represent remnants of hybridization between the now presumably extinct A. virescens and the more common Haleakala silversword, A. sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum (A. Gray) Meyrat, that still occurs at and adjacent to this site. The estimated pollen fertility of 62% in the Pu‘u ‘Alaea plant is consistent with this interpretation. Recovery of a few embryos from fruits of the plant that flowered in 1989 and the possibility of tissue culture of the remaining living plant at Pu‘u ‘Alaea apparently represent the last opportunities to conserve any vestige of A. virescens.
Understory Succession Following a Dieback of Myrica faya in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park
Peter B. Adler, Carla M. D’Antonio, and J. Timothy Tunison, pp. 69-78
Studies of invasion by the introduced nitrogen-fixing tree Myrica faya Aiton in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park have led to predictions that the nitrogen-rich soil M. faya creates will promote invasion by nonindigenous plant species. An insect-caused dieback of M. faya that began in the late 1980s provides an opportunity to test this hypothesis. We compared percentage cover and density of all plant species under live and dead M. faya, as well as total nitrogen in soil and plant tissue. Mean percentage cover of four common species increased significantly, and no species decreased in cover after dieback. Cover of native shrubs and herbs increased from 4.8 to 15.2%, largely due to the spread of Carex wahuensis C.A. Mey, and introduced grasses increased from 2.3% to 14.1%. Density of native shrubs did not differ beneath live and dead M. faya, but immature introduced grass individuals were significantly more numerous beneath dead M. faya. We found no differences in total nitrogen in soil or plant tissue collected beneath live versus dead M. faya. Beneath dead M. faya, cover of C. wahuensis increased with total soil N, and introduced grass cover decreased. This surprising result may be the legacy of shading effects from the live M. faya canopies, for which total soil N may be an indicator. Success of grass seedlings compared with failure of native shrubs to recruit from seed suggests that dieback promotes nonnative grass species. Replacement of M. faya with introduced grasses may greatly increase fire risk.
Time Variation in Phytoplankton Assemblages in a Subtropical Lagoon System after the 1982-1983 “El Niño” Event (1984 to 1986)
Ismael Gárate-Lizárraga and David A. Siqueiros Beltrones, pp. 79-97
An analysis of seasonal and geographical distribution and abundance of the total and separate fractions of phytoplankton (nanno- and microphytoplankton) in the Magdalena-Almejas lagoon system was done after the 1982-1983 “El Niño” event. In spite of its being in a subtropical region, the annual variation of phytoplankton abundance in the area was similar to the annual cycle of production of coastal lagoons in temperate regions. There were two peaks of phytoplankton abundance, in spring and in autumn. The upwelling and tidal currents enriching the waters of Bahía Magdalena were responsible for the high concentrations of phytoplankton in the bay. Microphytoplankton was the most important fraction throughout the study period. Nannophytoplankton was somewhat abundant. Using principal component analysis, seasonal variation and frequency were the two factors determining the structure of species assemblages. Lowest values of diversity and dominance were related to circulation patterns and to the phytoplankton blooms that occurred throughout the year in Bahía Magdalena-Almejas. High values of diversity and low dominance were estimated at those areas under the influence of oceanic waters. The 1982-1983 El Niño caused a drastic drop in phytoplankton abundance during 1984. The recuperation process was slow, starting in 1985 and completed by 1986. Recorded increases in phytoplankton abundance surpassed all previous records. “El Niño” caused changes in the structure of the microphytoplankton assemblages. Species richness and specific diversity diminished because of the occurrence of few species.
Dictyostelid Cellular Slime Molds from Hawai‘i
John C. Landolt and George J. Wong, pp. 98-103
Soil and litter samples, collected from Hawai‘i on the islands of Hawai‘i, O‘ahu, and Kaua‘i, were examined for occurrence and distribution of dictyostelid cellular slime molds. In total, 194 samples, from 20 different sites and representing several plant communities, were collected during June 1995 and processed in the laboratory soon thereafter. A total of 10 species and one variety was recovered, seven of which have not been reported previously from Hawai‘i. The greatest species richness (seven) and highest densities (up to 63 clones per gram of fresh soil/litter) were found on the island of Hawai‘i, with lower values obtained for sites on O‘ahu and Kaua‘i. It was rare for dictyostelids to be recovered from more than 30% of the samples collected at any given site. A number of sites were characterized by recovery of a single species, and at least one site on each island sampled was devoid of recoverable dictyostelids. Overall, dictyostelid densities were quite low compared with those at other locations in subtropical and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and the values for species richness are lower than those reported for most neotropical mainland locations. These observations suggest a rather modest dictyostelid community in Hawai‘i, at least during the relatively dry period when sampling was carried out. Lack of a windborne dispersal mechanism may be responsible for the limited distribution of dictyostelids in Hawai‘i and possibly other island groups that are remote from continental land masses.
Pacific Science 52, no. 2
Land Snail Extinctions of Kalaeloa, O‘ahu
T. S. Dye and H. D. Tuggle, pp. 111-140
A decline over time in the proportion of native land snail taxa believed to be extinct today at Kalaeloa has been interpreted and widely cited as an example of Polynesian influence on the Hawaiian environment. This interpretation is shown to be based on an inappropriate measure of decline and nonstandard calibrations of 14C dates. An analysis of change over time in the diversity of land snail taxa from Kalaeloa sinkholes and recalibration of 14C dates using Bayesian techniques reveals a different pattern, which is interpreted as having two components. There is a long-term, gradual decline in the diversity of native, extinct land snail taxa, explained as the result of desiccation of the sinkhole environment due to a drop in the water table when sea level fell from its mid-Holocene high stand. There is also an abrupt disruption of the land snail fauna late in the stratigraphic sequence. It is argued that this disruption dates to the historic period, when the environment of the ‘Ewa plain was drastically altered for sugarcane production and when the vegetation that now dominates the region was introduced. Aside from the appearance of the snail Lamellaxis gracilis, which was introduced to the Islands by Polynesians, the land snail assemblages from the Kalaeloa sinkholes yield no evidence for Polynesian influence on the environment.
Benthic Communities Associated with Carbonate Rubble and Adjacent Soft Sediments in a Shallow Coastal Area of O‘ahu, Hawai‘i
S. A. McCarthy, J. H. Bailey-Brock, and W. A. Estabrooks, pp. 141-150
Although the shallow, wave-swept sedimentary environment of the near-shore subtidal region of Hawai‘i would be expected to be characterized by a relatively homogenous community associated with shifting sediments, small-scale variability in the macrofauna exists. Benthic communities associated with rubble are distinct from nearby sand areas. Higher densities, taxonomic richness, and benthic biomass are characteristic of sediments containing carbonate rubble fragments (ranging from 2 to 64 mm in size). Rubble communities are dominated by annelids and a variety of crustaceans (primarily amphipods, isopods, and tanaids); sand communities are dominated by nematodes. The unconsolidated carbonate rubble community displays an undisturbed Abundance Biomass Comparison (ABC) pattern; the sand community displays a disturbed pattern. The divergent ABC patterns may reflect differences in substrate stability
First Confirmed East-West Transpacific Movement of a Loggerhead Sea Turtle, Caretta caretta, Released in Baja California, Mexico
Antonio Resendiz, Beatris Resendiz, Wallace J. Nichols, Jeffrey A. Seminoff, and Naoki Kamezaki, pp. 151-153
In July 1994 a loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) was released from the central Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula. Four hundred and seventy-eight days later the turtle was found by a fisherman off the coast of Kyushu, Japan. This represents a one-way transpacific migration of more than 10,000 km. This report is a reminder of the importance of international collaboration in marine research and conservation.
A New Species of the Genus Pempheris (Teleostei: Pempherididae) from Rapa Iti, French Polynesia
Randall D. Mooi, pp. 154-160
Pempheris rapa Mooi, n. sp., is distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: scales strongly ctenoid and adherent; no gular scales; pelvic axillary scale absent; dorsal fin with six spines; in specimens 35 mm SL or larger, gill-raker counts on first arch 11-13+26-29=37-42 (usually 38-40); lateral-line scales 72-84 (rarely fewer than 76); no anterior light organ; anal fin with 33-37 segmented rays. A second species of Pempheris of uncertain identification, but a member of the cycloid-scaled and keeled species complex that includes P. oualensis, was found among the collections of the new species.
Functional, Simultaneous Hermaphroditism in Female-Phase Lysmata amboinensis (Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae)
G. Curt Fiedler, pp. 161-169
Several species of hippolytid shrimp of the genus Lysmata are described as protandrous hermaphrodites, with speculation that some Lysmata are simultaneous hermaphrodites and/or store exogenous sperm. The objective of this study was to ascertain the presence of simultaneous hermaphroditism in L. amboinensis De Man. For this experiment, four pairs of female-phase L. amboinensis were isolated until each shrimp spawned two fertile clutches of eggs. For two of the four pairs, pair-mates were then separated and isolated in an identical fashion. Paired individuals continued to spawn and hatch fertile eggs. isolated individuals spawned only infertile eggs. Paired shrimp also synchronized their molt cycles in a staggered fashion, such that individuals alternated sexual roles. Histological and morphological examination shows that each female-phase individual possessed an active male and female portion of the gonad with corresponding gonoducts. The results indicate that this species is a functional, simultaneous hermaphrodite. Previously, this pattern has not been adequately described in any decapod crustacean.
Coral Borers of the Eastern Pacific: Asidosiphon (A.) elegans (Sipuncula: Aspidosiphonidae) and Pomatogebia rugosa (Crustacea: Upogebiidae)
Ana C. Fonseca E. and Jorge Cortés, pp. 170-175
This is the first report of the sipunculan Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) elegans (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821) in the tropical eastern Pacific. With this species the number of coral borers rises to 18 for this region. The upogebiidid crustacean Pomatogebia rugosa (Lockington, 1878) was reported previously (as Upogebia rugosa) from coral colonies in the Gulf of California, México, and from coral reefs of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica; the latter represented a southward range extension of approximately 3500 km. Subsequently, P. rugosa was recorded from branches of Pocillopora corals in Colombia, extending the range farther southward. In our study, both species were extracted from colonies of the massive coral Porites lobata Dana from Golfo Dulce, southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Aspidosiphon (A.) elegans ranged in length from 1 to 20 mm and was present in a density as high as 300 individuals per 1000 cm3. Pomatogebia rugosa was present in 14% of the colonies examined and was responsible for 0.6 ± 0.35% of the CaCO3 removed at one site in Golfo Dulce; at another site it was present in 33% of the colonies and was responsible for 2.5 ± 2.22% of the CaCO3 removed. P. rugosa was found living in pairs inside live coral colonies of Porites lobata, in branched tunnels about 2.5 mm in diameter and lined with mud. Bioerosion caused by these two species of borers in the eastern Pacific is minimal compared with that caused by sea urchins and boring bivalves.
Pacific Science 52, no. 3
Adult Age and Breeding Structure of a Hawaiian Drosophila silvestris (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Population Assessed via Female Reproductive Status
Elysse M. Craddock and Wallace Dominey, pp. 197-209
The Upper ‘Ola‘a Forest population of Drosophila silvestris, a dipteran species endemic to the island of Hawai‘i, was studied to investigate adult age and breeding structure of this natural population. Analyses of insemination status and ovarian developmental stage were carried out for both laboratory-reared and field-collected females, including a sample of F1 individuals that had been marked and released into the field population shortly after adult eclosion. Marked females were recaptured from 7 days old to more than 4 months after release; this sample included representatives of all seven ovarian developmental stages scored (from early previtellogenesis to fully mature ovaries). The profile of female reproductive maturation in the field flies was similar to that in laboratory-reared flies, except that developmental rates were substantially slower and more variable in the natural population, largely because of lower field temperatures. Using information on ages and ovarian condition of the marked females, an independent population sample of wild-caught adult females were estimated to include 28% young flies approximately 2 to 3 weeks old (ovaries previtellogenic), 37% maturing flies from 2 to 4 or more weeks old (vitellogenic ovaries), and 35% reproductively mature flies from 1 to more than 4 months old. The unexpected excess of young flies in the adult population up to 4 or 5 weeks old (65%) can be interpreted by several alternative hypotheses (e.g., age-related dispersal, predation, location of suitable breeding substrates, baiting effects), but further studies are required to confirm whether this age pattern is typical. Earliest onset of female receptivity occurred at mid vitellogenesis in both field and laboratory flies, with insemination frequencies increasing as ovaries matured. It is surprising that field females showed higher mating success at all competent ovarian stages than females reared in the continuous presence of males. Further, all reproductively mature field females, both marked and unmarked, were inseminated. In this species, sexual selection acts primarily on males, with the lack of female mating failure in the field providing no evidence of sexual selection among adult females.
Notes on Appearance and Speculated Behavior of the O‘ahu ‘O‘o (Meliphagidae)
Jaan Kaimanu Lepson, pp. 210-219
The O‘ahu ‘O‘o (Moho apicalis) was last collected in 1837, and is one of the rarest Hawaiian birds in museum collections. Despite the cultural importance of the ‘O‘o as a source of yellow feathers for Hawaiian featherwork, next to nothing is known about the species. A pair of these extinct honeyeaters at the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität in Berlin have conspicuous yellow bare orbital rings, features not previously noted or illustrated. Individuals apparently varied in the expression of this character, because six other specimens did not have the yellow ring. Possible sources of variation include age, sex, agonistic state, and breeding condition. That this character varies with age is suggested by its presence in a reduced form in juveniles of other ‘O‘o species. Increased sexual dimorphism of the modified tails relative to body size in this and other ‘O‘o species indicates sexual selection on tails either from intrasexual aggression or intersexual mate choice. Patterns of contrasting yellow feather tufts differ between birds from different islands, but not between sexes. suggesting that males and females experienced similar evolutionary pressures for this feature. The ‘O‘o’s tail may have evolved under the influence of sexual selection on males, and the conspicuous yellow feather tufts by social selection experienced equally by both sexes.
Recent Replacement of Native Pili Grass (Heteropogon contortus) by Invasive African Grasses in the Hawaiian Islands
Curtis C. Daehler and Debbie A. Carino, pp. 220-227
We surveyed 41 sites from throughout O‘ahu that had been dominated by native pili grass (Heteropogon contortus) in the late 1960s. Pili grass was absent from 14 (35%) of those sites in 1997 and had declined in abundance in most of the 27 remaining sites, relative to the late 1960s. The pili grass communities have been replaced by communities dominated by one of three African grasses: Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel grass), Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass), or Panicum maximum (Guinea grass). Panicum maximum was often associated with the shrub Leucaena leucocephala, and Cenchrus ciliaris and Pennisetum setaceum communities showed little evidence of succession toward woody vegetation. Communities dominated by the African grasses were significantly less diverse, in terms of number of plant species, than the native pili grass-dominated communities. Observations made on other Hawaiian islands suggest that this rapid pili grass decline and replacement with alien grasses has not been limited to O‘ahu. Research is needed to determine how higher-diversity native pili grass communities can be maintained in the Hawaiian Islands as a valuable natural and cultural resource.
Nonindigenous Ants at High Elevations on Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i
James K. Wetterer, Paul C. Banko, Leona P. Laniawe, John W. Slotterback,
and Greg J. Brenner, pp. 228-236
Ant surveys were conducted at high elevations (1680-3140 m) on the western slope of Mauna Kea Volcano on the island of Hawai‘i to determine the extent of ant infestation in those highland communities and particularly to evaluate the potential threat of ants in the highlands to native Hawaiian species. Ants were surveyed at 10 long-term sampling sites. Ants were common on Mauna Kea up to 2000 m elevation, but densities quickly dropped off above that. Five species of ants were collected: Linepithema humile (Mayr), Cardiocondyla venustula Wheeler, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius), Tetramorium bicarinatum (Nylander), and Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus). Other than L. humile, these collections on Mauna Kea are the highest recorded locales in the Hawaiian Islands.
Population Genetics and Pattern of Larval Dispersal of the Endemic Hawaiian Freshwater Amphidromous Gastropod Neritina granosa (Prosobranchia: Neritidae)
Marc H. Hodges and Fred W. Allendorf, pp. 237-249
Protein electrophoresis was used to study the population genetics of the endemic Hawaiian freshwater amphidromous gastropod Neritina granosa Sowerby. The genetic information was used to infer the pattern and degree of planktonic larval dispersal. Samples were taken from 12 streams located throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago during July, August, and September 1991. Overall mean heterozygosity was 0.052. Heterozygote deficiency was comparable with that found in other mollusks and marine invertebrates. Gene flow was substantial and was generally sufficient to maintain similar allele frequencies among stream populations. An island model of migrations was indicated. However, significant heterogeneity among populations was observed and was due primarily to three geographically disparate streams. Causes of deficiency and heterogeneity remain unknown. Demographic information suggests that, although high from a genetic point of view, the rate of migration calculated from gene flow might be insufficient to affect demographic processes in large populations of N. granosa.
Distribution, habitat preferences, and intraspecific variation in the giant Micronesian gecko (Perochirus scutellatus) are discussed for the first time, based on 136 recently acquired specimens together with field observations spanning approximately 2 months. Only two specimens, both adult males, have been reported previously in the literature. Perochirus scutellatus is a large (up to 132 mm snout-vent length and 60 g body mass), sexually dimorphic (males larger than females), arboreal, and predominately diurnal gecko known only from Kapingamarangi Atoll (on 18 of 31 islands). Adults occur mainly on tree trunks (chiefly Guettarda speciosa), with densities as high as 25 per tree and encounter rates of up to approximately 150 per hour. Juveniles were encountered mainly in Cocos leaf axils during the day and in Scaevola bushes along the strand line at night. Adults were cryptically colored on lichen-covered limbs and trunks, being mottled dark brown to pale gray, with small, scattered whitish flecks and patches, and often faintly washed with yellow green. Juveniles tend to be paler, brighter (more yellow green), and more uniformly colored than adults.
Age, Growth, and Mortality of Caulolatilus affinis (Osteichthyes: Branchiostegidae) from the Southern Gulf of California
Juan F. Elorduy-Garay and Sergio S. Ruiz-Cordova, pp. 259-272
Age, growth, and mortality of the Pacific golden-eyed tilefish (Caulolatilus affinis Gill) were investigated. From a total sample of 7253 individuals taken from February 1986 to May 1987, the ages of a subsample of 3532 fish were determined using their otoliths. The eviscerated-total weight relationship was linear. The length-weight relationship was fitted to a potential model and the growth pattern can be considered as isometrical. Growth of C. affinis can be adequately described by the von Bertalanffy growth function; the parameter estimates were L∞ = 387.97 mm SL, k = 0.1729 per year, t0 = -2.226 yr, for males; L∞ = 478.28 mm SL, k = 0.0924 per year, t0 = -3.768 yr, for females; L∞ = 422.87 mm SL, k = 0.1327 per year, t0 = -2.713 yr, for the sexes combined. Asymptotic weights (eviscerated) were 1210.96 g, 2310.42 g, and 1571.13 g for males, females, and the sexes combined, respectively. The instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z) was 0.4829, 0.4253, and 0.5052, and the corresponding rate of natural mortality (M) was 0.2142, 0.1316, and 0.1697 for males, females, and the sexes combined, respectively.
Pacific Science 52, no. 4
Tropical biological stations have become in the last half-century a well-established phenomenon. They are, however, but a modern manifestation of a long tradition of institutionalized study of tropical biological diversity, an approach gradually adopted by Europeans as one response to the needs and challenges of a new environment. This paper describes the growth of early institutions in South and Southeast Asia (and Mauritius), particularly botanic gardens, learned societies, and scientific surveys, and examines their relative successes and failures in relation to their geographical and political circumstances. The interaction among the Dutch, French, and British spheres is examined in relation to the appearance of new ideas. It is concluded that although all these powers were from time to time innovative, the British and Dutch, though in different ways, became the most successful in their lasting influence on pure and applied tropical science. The British network, internally strong and effectively worldwide by the nineteenth century, was notable for its breadth but featured less autonomy for individual units; the Dutch, fortunately situated in Indonesia and heir to an autonomous biological tradition, established in Bogor the beginnings of what became after 1870 a major biological (and, indeed, academic) center.
“That Extensive Enterprise”: HMS Herald‘s North Pacific Survey, 1845–1851
Jane Samson, pp. 287-293
Despite its enormous scope, the survey of HMS Herald, like most British scientific voyages after the time of Captain Cook, is little known. This article’s discussion of naturalist Berthold Seemann’s accounts of the voyage challenges the impression, still common in some naval history circles, that there is a difference between scientific expeditions and other naval activities (that is, between science and politics). The article considers evidence of imperial aesthetics in Seemann’s responses to landscape and notes connections between the collection of scientific data and the interests of British commercial and political expansion. Examination of Seemann’s racial views shows that, just as he viewed landscape and natural resources with an imperial eye, so he judged other peoples by his own standards of achievement and “improvability.”
Humboldtian Imagery and “the Humboldt of Australia”
R. W. Home, pp. 294-300
When the great German geographer August Petermann called the botanist/explorer Ferdinand von Mueller “the Humboldt of Australia,” what did he have in mind? Elaborating the circumstances of his doing so gives us a new view of Alexander von Humboldt’s image among nineteenth-century scientists who declared themselves to be his followers and raises the question of how closely this might have corresponded with the notion of “Humboldtian science” that has been developed by present-day historians of science.
“In Behalf of the Science of the Country”: The Smithsonian and the U.S. Navy in the North Pacific in the 1850s
Marc Rothenberg, pp. 301-307
During the early 1850s, the United States launched two major expeditions to the Pacific, as well as a series of surveys of the American West. Although the U.S. Army had developed a strong symbiotic relationship with the civilian scientific community, the U.S. Navy was still attempting to define its role in American science. This paper compares and contrasts the role of science, especially civilian science, in the U.S. Naval Expedition to Japan and the U.S. Naval Expedition to the North Pacific in the context of American military-civilian scientific cooperation during that period. Special attention is paid to the role of the Smithsonian Institution, the leading civilian scientific institution in the United States, in the two naval expeditions.
Postcolonialism and Museum Knowledge: Revisiting the Museums of the Pacific
Roy MacLeod, pp. 308-318
Museums are the medium of our age. As such, the museum world cannot be isolated from political realities. On the contrary, far from their idealized image as institutional constants, innocently engaged in the “collection, conservation, classification, and display of objects,” most important museums–whether of art, history, anthropology, or natural history–are in a state of change, in management, in motivation, and in their capacities to attract visitors, engage attention, and mediate between what objects “say” and what the visitor expects to hear. What is evident in Europe and North America is equally apparent in Australasia and the Pacific–with certain important differences. Today, Pacific museums are exploring a rich mix of postcolonial alternatives. Amongst many institutions seeking to speak to indigenous peoples and to hear their voices, they are focusing attention upon the rituals of cultural affirmation and the local character of knowledge production, as distinct from its global reception and legitimation. As such, they offer the historian of science an object lesson in the entangled relationship between Western and indigenous modes of thought. This paper outlines some of the characteristics and ambivalences currently accompanying the passage from colonial to postcolonial ways of thinking in the museum world of the Pacific.
Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Congress
XXth International Congress of the History of Science, Liege, Belgium, July 1997, pp. 319-321
Balistes polylepis and Xanthichthys caeruleolineatus, Two Large Triggerfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Balistidae) from the Hawaiian Islands, with a Key to Hawaiian Species
John E. Randall and Bruce C. Mundy, pp. 322-333
The large triggerfish Balistes polylepis Steindachner, the most common species of the family in the eastern Pacific, was previously reported from Hawai‘i as Pseudobalistes fuscus (Bloch & Schneider) or questionably as B. polylepis; the identification as B. polylepis is here confirmed. Because of its rare occurrence in Hawai`i, it was believed to be a waif; however, an underwater photograph of one guarding a nest indicates that spawning has occurred in Hawai‘i. A second large balistid, Xanthichthys caeruleolineatus Randall, Matsuura & Zama, wide ranging from the western Indian Ocean to Cocos Island, Costa Rica, is recorded from the Hawaiian Islands, where it is known from 46 to 165 m. A key is presented to the 11 Hawaiian species of the Balistidae. An enigmatic specimen of Canthidermis reportedly collected in Hawaiian waters is also discussed.
Lioscincus maruia, A New Species of Lizard (Reptilia: Scincidae) from New Caledonia, Southwest Pacific
Ross A. Sadlier, Anthony H. Whitaker, and Aaron M. Bauer, pp. 334-341
A new species of scincid lizard, Lioscincus maruia Sadlier, Whitaker & Bauer, n. sp., is described from the central ranges of New Caledonia. It is a moderate-sized species of skink with a particularly long tail. It is known from only a single location in maquis shrubland and appears to be restricted to this habitat type. The species is considered vulnerable because of the restricted and fragmented nature of its habitat, and the potential for fire and mining activities to threaten that habitat type. In overall morphology Lioscincus maruia is most similar to Lioscincus tillieri Ineich & Sadlier, a species from maquis habitat in adjacent ranges to the south.
Two New Species of the Genus Bavayia (Reptilia: Squamata: Diplodactylidae) from New Caledonia
Aaron M. Bauer, Anthony H. Whitaker, and Ross A. Sadlier, pp. 342-355
Two new species of the diplodactylid gecko Bavayia are described from restricted areas within the main island of New Caledonia. Both species are characterized by small size, a single row of preanal pores, and distinctive dorsal color patterns. One species is known only from the endangered sclerophyll forest of the drier west coast of New Caledonia, where it was collected in the largest remaining patch of such habitat on the Pindaï Peninsula. The second species occupies the maquis and adjacent midelevation humid forest habitats in the vicinity of Mé Adéo in south-central New Caledonia. Although relationships within the genus Bavayia remain unknown, the two new species appear to be closely related to one another.
Wood Anatomy of Dubautia (Asteraceae: Madiinae) in Relation to Adaptive Radiation
Sherwin Carlquist, pp. 356-368
Qualitative and quantitative features are reported for stem wood of 13 collections of 12 species of the Hawaiian genus Dubautia. Although the species share a basic wood plan, quantitative expressions range widely, especially with respect to vessel element dimensions, vessel density, vessel grouping, length of libriform fibers, and dimensions of multiseriate rays. Ecology and habit explain most of the diversity. Variations in the ratio between vessel element length and libriform fiber length are correlated with habit both within Dubautia and when Dubautia is compared with Argyroxiphium and Wilkesia. Other variation in wood is related mostly to ecology. The Dubautia species of wet forest have high mesomorphy ratio values. Low mesomorphy ratio values occur in species of recent or dry lava (e.g., D. scabra) or dry alpine areas (D. menziesii); mesomorphy ratio values in the xeric species are comparable with those in Argyroxiphium. Highly xeromorphic wood in the bog species D. waialealae may reflect recent immigration from a dry habitat or peculiar features of the bog habitat. The lianoid D. latifolia has notably xeromorphic wood, which may reflect recent entry into wet forest or else the tendency for lianas in general to have xeromorphic features that confer conductive safety. All species of Dubautia show fiber dimorphism. Dubautia is a superb example of adaptive radiation, in contrast to the Hawaiian Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae), which has shifted into various habitats with little change in wood anatomy, or the Galápagos genus Scalesia, all species of which must survive periods of drought and have xeromorphic wood.