Pacific Science 67 (2013)

Pacific Science 67, no. 1

Pacific Science 67-1 Consuming Diversity: Analysis of Seasonal Catch Patterns in Multispecies Artisanal Reef Fisheries in North Sulawesi, Eastern Indonesia
M. Tokeshi, S. Arakaki, and J. R. P. Daud, 1–13

Despite the socioeconomic as well as ecological importance of smallscale fisheries in developing countries, there is a dearth of information on the state of artisanal fisheries in different regions of the tropical Indo-Pacific. In this study, catch patterns in small-scale artisanal fisheries within an area of high marine biodiversity in the western Pacific were analyzed using data gathered directly from the main fish market in Manado, North Sulawesi, eastern Indonesia. Of a total of 350 species identified among harvested fishes, the majority of species (ca. 90%) were closely associated with shallow reef habitats (<50 m), and open/deep-water species constituted a small proportion. There was a clear preponderance of relatively small (<50 cm) fish species among marketed fishes, with a steep decline in abundance of larger species, suggesting the possibility of overfishing. Faunal complementarity or distinctness between wet (November – March) and dry (April – October) season was lower for reef-associated fishes than for nonreef ones, reflecting the less-targeted nature of reef fisheries. Although relative catch patterns were broadly similar between wet and dry season, variability in catches as expressed by the variance of the truncated lognormal model was smaller in reef-associated than in nonreef species, indicating existence of year-round, relatively stable fishery activity centered on shallow reef environments. This finding points to the importance of reef habitats and their associated fish faunas for the artisanal fisheries of the tropical western Pacific.

Quantitative Analysis of Distribution of Lutjanus Fishes (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) by Market Surveys in the Ryukyu Islands, Okinawa, Japan
Tamaki Shimose and Atsushi Nanami, 15–22

Distribution patterns of Lutjanus fishes (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the Ryukyu Islands, Okinawa, Japan, were quantitatively investigated by fish market surveys in Okinawa Island (26° N, 127° E) and Ishigaki Island (24° N, 124° E). At Okinawa and Ishigaki, totals of 296 and 326 ports × days surveys recorded 8,866 and 8,246 individual Lutjanus fishes, respectively, of 19 species. Frequency of occurrence and number landed for some commercial Lutjanus species were different between the two islands during comparison within the same gear type. Five species (e.g., L. fulviflammus, L. gibbus) that were common (>1.0% in frequency of occurrence) at both islands were thought to have main distribution from south of the Ryukyu Islands to around Okinawa Island. Two species (L. decussatus, L. rivulatus) that were common at Ishigaki and not at Okinawa were thought to have main distribution from south of the Ryukyu Islands to around Ishigaki Island. Three species (e.g., L. bengalensis, L. stellatus) that were not common at both islands were thought to have main distribution outside the Ryukyu Islands. The remaining five species (e.g., L. malabaricus, L. vitta) were common at Okinawa but not at Ishigaki, despite the fact they are widely distributed in the area south of the Ryukyu Islands. This distribution pattern looks discontinuous and implies that the environments around Ishigaki Island are not preferable for nursery grounds or adult habitats of these species. Both qualitative (only presence or absence) and quantitative descriptions of the distribution will facilitate understanding of their biogeography.

Spatial and Temporal Variation in Rocky Intertidal Communities along the Main Hawaiian Islands
Traci Erin Cox, Joanna Philippoff, Erin Baumgartner, Chela J. Zabin, and Celia M. Smith, 23–45

Thirteen benthic rocky intertidal communities were quantitatively assessed on Maui, Moloka‘i, O‘ahu, and Hawai‘i Island between the years 2004 and 2007. Our goals were to test for differences in invertebrate and macroalgal abundance and composition to understand how these tropical communities are organized. Percentage cover surveys revealed a diverse intertidal system with 49 macroalgal, 1 cyanobacterial, and 31 invertebrate taxa. Shores were frequently dominated by a few macroalgae and mollusks, and at two sites these organisms were distributed in discrete vertical bands. Common intertidal taxa included the introduced alga Acanthophora spicifera; species in the macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Laurencia; turf forms of algae; and the mollusks Siphonaria normalis, Nerita picea, and species of littorine snails. Multivariate statistics found community structure to vary among sites and years, but there was lack of evidence for island-specific or substratum-specific assemblages. SIMPROF analysis revealed support for 11 different types of structure. This first description of community-level patterns at multiple intertidal sites along the Main Hawaiian Islands documents substantial spatial variation both among and within shores, as well as substantial temporal variation for select sites. These findings are in contrast to the characterization of a homogeneous tropical system and thus suggest that biotic and abiotic factors in the Main Hawaiian Islands act on a local scale to drive structure.

Treefall Gap Dynamics in a Tropical Rain Forest in Papua New Guinea
Arison Arihafa and Andrew L. Mack, 47–58

Treefall gaps play important roles in tropical rain-forest ecology. But studies rely increasingly on models, remote sensing, and a few intensively studied research sites, mostly in the neotropics. We studied the basic parameters of gap dynamics (size, causes, and frequency) of treefall gaps in a lower montane primary forest on the southern flank of the central range of Papua New Guinea. We found 40 treefall gaps formed on 10.4 km of transect sampled annually over 3 yr. Mean proportion of forest under new gaps was 0.015/yr. Mean area of treefall gaps ≤1 yr old was 312 m2, and gap area was positively correlated with diameter of the fallen tree. Mostly only large trees (diameter at breast height [DBH] x̄ = 53 cm) fell as snapped (n = 23) or uprooted (n = 17), creating both single (n = 34) and multiple (n = 6) treefall gaps. There was no strong directionality in the bearings of treefalls. This study provides some of the first information on gap dynamics in Papua New Guinea, where such data can be used to inform sustainable forestry harvesting practices.

Potential Classical Biological Control of Invasive Himalayan Yellow Raspberry, Rubus ellipticus (Rosaceae)
Kai Wu, Ted D. Center, Chunhua Yang, Jun Zhang, Jialiang Zhang, and Jianqing Ding, 59–80

Rubus ellipticus is one of the world’s worst invasive alien species. It is a serious problematic weed in Hawai‘i and has naturalized in many other countries. Biological control is being considered as a means to suppress it by introducing natural enemies from Asia, its native region. In this paper, we report 62 herbivorous insect species in 22 families that were collected on R. ellipticus during 2006 – 2010 in China. Two leaf-rolling moth species, Epinotia ustulana and Epiblema tetragonana; two warty beetle species, Chlamisus setosus and Chlamisus sp.; two flea beetle species in the genus Chaetocnema; four unidentified weevil species; five unidentified buprestids; one pyralid species; and one sawfly species were considered important. We also report results of preliminary host-range determinations for some of them. In addition, we summarize the literature on natural enemies associated with Rubus species in Asia, which encompasses 50 arthropod species in 14 families and 63 fungi species in 18 orders.

Land Snails from Archaeological Sites in the Marshall Islands, with Remarks on Prehistoric Translocations in Tropical Oceania
Carl C. Christensen and Marshall I. Weisler, 81–104

We report the recovery of 11 taxa of nonmarine mollusks from archaeological sites on Majuro, Maloelap, and Ebon Atolls, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Pupina complanata (Pupinidae), Omphalotropis fragilis (Assimineidae), Truncatella guerinii (Truncatellidae), Lamellidea pusilla and Pacificella variabilis (Achatinellidae), Gastrocopta pediculus (Gastrocoptidae), Nesopupa sp. (Vertiginidae), “Succinea” sp. (Succineidae), Allopeas gracile (Subulinidae), and Liardetia samoensis (Helicarionidae) arrived in these islands prehistorically; Liardetia sculpta (Helicarionidae) has not yet been recovered from levels of confirmed prehistoric age. Pupina complanata, O. fragilis, and probably also Nesopupa sp., and “Succinea” sp. are Micronesian endemics. All other species are widely distributed in Micronesia and Polynesia and (except for the strand-line species T. guerinii) were undoubtedly translocated to the Marshall Islands by the prehistoric voyages of Pacific islanders. The precise role of human transport in the dispersal of the Micronesian endemics remains unclear, but because these atolls have been emergent for a mere 3,000 yr or so, human transport is likely in view of the known rarity of natural interarchipelagic dispersal of nonmarine mollusks.

Seasonal Life Cycle of Zatypota albicoxa (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), an Ectoparasitoid of Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Araneae: Theridiidae), in Southwestern Japan
Keizo Takasuka and Kazuhiro Tanaka, 105–111

The seasonal life cycle of Zatypota albicoxa, an ectoparasitoid of the house spider, Parasteatoda tepidariorum, was examined in Tōon, in warm-
temperate southwestern Japan. The larvae were found all year round, but eggs, pupal cocoons, and adults were found only from March to November. In winter, only the medium second-instar larvae were found, suggesting that they are in diapause state. Seasonal occurrence of each developmental stage in the field indicated that this parasitoid produces more than four generations per year. The life cycle in Tōon is substantially similar to that in Hirosaki, in cool-temperate northern Japan, but some of the traits differed geographically. Occurrence of newly formed pupal cocoons was 2 months earlier and length of the season for growth and reproduction was 4 months longer in Tōon than in Hirosaki. Appearance of the pupal cocoon is more or less coincident with the period when monthly mean temperatures reach around 10°C. The observed geographical difference in the seasonal life cycle may be due to the difference in local climatic conditions, but not to a difference in seasonal host availability.

Silica-scaled Chrysophytes (Chrysophyceae and Synurophyceae) from New Zealand Freshwaters. II. Additions to the Flora
Daniel E. Wujek, 113–118

Eight species of silica-scaled chrysophytes were observed from collections made between December 1988 and February 1989. The species are cosmopolitan with the exception of one new species, Paraphysomonas preisigii Wujek, described here. Siliceous scales of the colorless free-living flagellate Gyromitus disomatus were also observed.

Reptiles of Sorol Atoll, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia
Donald W. Buden, 119–128

Fourteen species of reptiles (two turtles, five geckos, six skinks, one monitor lizard) are recorded in the first herpetological survey of Sorol Atoll, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Most of the species are widespread in the western Pacific and often well beyond. Emoia boettgeri is endemic to the Caroline and Marshall Islands and is at the western limits of its range on Sorol Atoll, and E. atrocostata, which is widely distributed in Indo-Australia and the western Pacific, is near the eastern edge of its range in the Caroline Islands on Sorol. Emoia caeruleocauda and E. impar are the most common lizards on the islands where they were recorded, and Lepidodactylus moestus was the most widely encountered, being recorded on four of the six islands. An abundance of turtle tracks on the beaches of nearly all the islands suggests that Sorol Atoll is an important sea turtle nesting site in the FSM. The monitor lizard, Varanus indicus, frequently feeds on turtle eggs on Sorol Island, where it was introduced during the Japanese administration, but it has not spread to the other islands on the atoll.

Observation of an Attack by a Cookiecutter Shark (Isistius brasiliensis) on a White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias)
Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Yannis P. Papastamatiou, John O’Sullivan, and Christopher
G. Lowe, 129–134

Cookiecutter sharks (Isistius brasiliensis) are known to attack a wide array of large animals including pelagic fishes, cetaceans, and pinnipeds. Here we add another top predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), to the list of potential victims. A subadult male white shark off Guadelupe Island, Mexico, was observed with a fresh cookiecutter shark bite next to its mouth, as well as a second crescent-shaped scar. A subadult male white shark was tracked in the same location and showed diel changes in depth, with the shark occupying shallow water (<50 m) at night, which may be when white sharks overlap with the vertical distribution of cookiecutter sharks. This further indicates that the majority of co-occurring marine top predators can be targeted by cookiecutter sharks.

Association Affairs

Pacific Science 67, no. 2

Pacific Science 67-2 coverBiology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 9. Capra hircus, the Feral Goat (Mammalia: Bovidae)
Mark W. Chynoweth, Creighton M. Litton, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Steve C. Hess, and Susan Cordell, 141–156

Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. Although the negative impacts of feral goats are well known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems and management strategies available to control this invasive species.

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 10. Iguana iguana, the Green Iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae)
Wilfredo Falcón, James D. Ackerman, Wilnelia Recart, and Curtis C. Daehler, 157–186

Green iguanas (Iguana iguana L.) have been introduced to many locations outside their native range due to both the pet trade and illegal introductions. This has led to the establishment of populations and subsequent spread outside the native range, causing negative impacts. The Pacific region is no exception, where green iguana populations have been reported historically in Hawai‘i and recently in Fiji and Ishigaki Island (Japan). Experience with I. iguana in the Greater Caribbean Basin has taught us that, if the right conditions are present, these reptiles proliferate and expand their range rapidly. We assessed the potential impacts that I. iguana may have on Pacific islands, especially where populations have been reported, and evaluated the risk of a green iguana invasion on Pacific islands using the maximum entropy niche-modeling algorithm (MaxEnt). The model predicted high climatic suitability for these reptiles on many Pacific islands, including those where populations have already been reported. Management and eradication strategies may include (1) targeting males during the reproductive season, when they establish territories and are displaying in trees; (2) finding females during the nesting season, when they are active on the ground and in vegetation at nearby nesting areas; and (3) finding nests and destroying eggs, or constructing artificial nesting areas to lure females. Green iguanas may be captured by hand or by pole-noose, with dogs, or shot with a 0.22 rifle. Where green iguanas are kept as pets, education campaigns are critical to prevent escapes. If possession is illegal, amnesty may be offered to owners who hand them in. Without proper regulation and management, I. iguana is likely to continue spreading and invading other Pacific islands.

Genetic and Morphological Differences among Populations of the Japanese Bush-Warbler (Aves: Sylviidae) on the Ogasawara Islands, Northern Pacific
Naoko Emura, Haruko Ando, Kazuto Kawakami, and Yuji Isagi, 187–196

Cettia diphone diphone is a subspecies of the Japanese Bush-warbler that is endemic to the Bonin and Volcano Islands of the Ogasawara Islands. Although the two island groups are physically distant and have different geological histories, genetic and morphological relationships between the two populations are unknown. A few individuals of an unidentified subspecies have been observed since 2007 on Mukojima of the Bonin Islands. They were possibly wintering birds of another subspecies in light of their song pattern and appearance. We examined the genetic and morphological differences among the Bonin and Volcano populations of C. d. diphone, C. d. cantans, and C. d. sakhalinensis populations and determined the identity of the unidentified subspecies on Mukojima by comparing sequences of the CO1 region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and conducting a canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) using five measurements per bird. Our results indicate that these populations (except C. d. sakhalinensis) are genetically and morphologically different. They did not share any haplotypes of mtDNA and indicated high discrimination rates (over 75%) based on CDA. Because the Volcano population inhabits only one island, it is a priority for conservation. The unidentified individuals on Mukojima Island are not the native subspecies. Migratory individuals might colonize Mukojima due to improved habitat conditions and an available niche. Continuous monitoring of the Mukojima population and its impact on native C. d. diphone is required.

First Successful Introduction of the Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) to the United States
Ruby L. Hammond, 197–203

The Golden Pheasant, Chrysolophus pictus (L.), was introduced to Maui, Hawai‘i, as recently as the mid-1990s and has been found at three locations on the windward slope of East Maui between 1,700 and 2,400 m in elevation. I contacted researchers, land managers, and hunting guides who worked in areas inhabited by Golden Pheasants from 1990 through 2012 and compiled their notes to determine the approximate time and location of introduction and range of the species, in addition to investigating the possibility of the establishment of the species on Maui. The species was probably released at Waikamoi Preserve, and detection frequency increased there since the discovery of the species in 1996. Evidence of reproduction during 2010–2011 suggests that a small breeding population is established at Waikamoi Preserve. Since the first detection in 1996, the linear range of the Golden Pheasant expanded to two additional areas, Hanawī Natural Area Reserve and Haleakalā National Park, encompassing a dispersal area of at least 10 km. Total area occupied by Golden Pheasants is estimated at around 40 ha at Waikamoi Preserve and 6.5 ha at Hanawī Natural Area Reserve.

Microhabitat Use in an Assemblage of Native and Introduced Fishes in a Hawaiian Stream
Mark G. McRae, Lori Benson McRae, and J. Michael Fitzsimons, 205–217

Ecological aspects of the relatively diverse fish assemblages found in the terminal reaches of streams in Hawai‘i are largely unknown. This study described patterns of microhabitat use in an assemblage of native and introduced stream fishes living in the terminal reach of Wailoa Stream on the island of Hawai‘i. Multivariate analyses of data collected through underwater visual surveys indicated that differences in microhabitat use were an important factor in structure of this assemblage. In riffle habitats, native fishes selected distinct microhabitats based on water velocity, substrate size, and position in the water column. In run habitats, a benthic guild (native gobies) and a water-column guild (introduced poeciliids and the endemic Kuhlia xenura) were identified. Strong differences in three-dimensional microhabitat use patterns appear to allow native gobioids to resist being displaced by introduced poeciliids in Wailoa Stream. However, high overlap in the microhabitat use patterns of juvenile K. xenura and introduced Poecilia mexicana and Xiphophorus helleri is cause for concern.

Evolution and Biogeographic Origins of the Endemic Hawaiian Genus Hesperomannia (Asteraceae)
Clifford W. Morden and Susan Ching Harbin, 219–235

The endemic Hawaiian genus Hesperomannia A. Gray was investigated to examine relationships among species and to test the hypotheses of dispersal to the Islands over 17 mya. Both nuclear internally transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic divergence among populations and species. PAUP, Neighbor-Joining, and Bayesian phylogenetic trees were generated to examine species boundaries and relationships. Principal coordinates analysis was used to examine relationships among individuals within populations and genetic distances among populations. Analyses suggest that four species should be recognized: H. lydgatei, H. oahuensis, H. swezeyi, and H. arborescens. Sequence analysis is consistent with arrival to Hawai‘i as recently as the last 2.3 my, after the three main island groups (Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, and Maui Nui) had emerged, followed by rapid dispersal among them. O‘ahu species are more closely related to each other than either is to the species of Maui Nui as was previously hypothesized. In contrast, Maui Nui plants are not genetically distinct enough to warrant separate species as previously recognized. Long-distance dispersal is evoked for dispersal among distantly situated island groups, but there is no evidence that colonization followed the progression rule model of dispersal among the Islands and may have occurred from younger to older islands. Vicariance is probable within O‘ahu and among the islands of Maui Nui following erosion and subsidence of those islands, and may also explain distribution of species among O‘ahu and Maui Nui. A revised key to and diagnostic descriptions of the species of Hesperomannia are provided.

Phylogenetic Relationships among Endemic Hawaiian Lysimachia (Ericales: Primulaceae): Insights from Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA Sequence Data
Il-Chan Oh, Jürg Schönenberger, Timothy J. Motley, Kendrick L. Marr, Mattias Myrenås, and Arne A. Anderberg, 237–251

Sixteen endemic Hawaiian species of Lysimachia, formerly referred to as subgenus Lysimachiopsis, form a morphologically distinct and monophyletic group within the genus. This group has radiated in various habitats, and most species are endemic to a single island. To reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships between the recognized taxa, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of 12 species of Lysimachia subgenus Lysimachiopsis using nuclear ribosomal DNA from two (ETS, ITS) and plastid DNA from five markers (rpl16, rpl20-rps12, rps16, trnH-psbA, trnS-G). A Bayesian analysis using all molecular data indicated that there are two major evolutionary lineages of Hawaiian endemic Lysimachia. The results also provide new insights into evolutionary history of the problematic L. hillebrandii/L. remyi complex, showing that L. hillebrandii and L. waianaeensis are closely related but that L. ovoidea is more distantly related and belongs to the other major lineage. Furthermore, L. remyi subsp. remyi and subsp. subherbacea are both closely related to L. maxima, but L. remyi subsp. caliginis and subsp. kipahuluensis belong to the second major lineage. Our results also indicated that earlier taxonomic treatments of the group need to be partially revised to reflect evolutionary relationships. A brief discussion on biogeography of the group is presented. The new combinations Lysimachia kipahuluensis subsp. caliginis and Lysimachia remyi subsp. maxima are made.

Patterns of Flower Visitation across Elevation and Successional Gradients in Hawai‘i
Jonathan B. Koch and Heather F. Sahli, 253–266

Numerous studies have examined foraging strategies of pollinators in continental landscapes, but relatively little is known about island pollinators. We investigated four native plant communities and their potential pollinators on Mauna Loa Volcano on Hawai‘i Island across two environmental gradients: elevation (middle and high) and succession (early and late). The effects of elevation and successional stage on visitation rates and degree of plant specialization were compared. Elevation had a significant effect on visitation rates with plants at mid elevation receiving the most visits, whereas succession had little effect on visitation rates. Both succession and elevation impacted plant specialization, with plants at late-succession and high-elevation sites being more specialized in terms of their diversity of flower visitors. Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) received the most forager visits, even when it was not the most abundant plant flowering. Endemic Hylaeus bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) were the dominant visitors across all sites (64%–91% of visits), and endemic birds were observed only at mid elevation, primarily in the late-succession site. Considering the paucity of natural history studies on Hawaiian Hylaeus, further investigation of their potential role as pollinators of native Hawaiian plants is necessary.

Vegetation of Alejandro Selkirk Island (Isla Masafuera), Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile
Josef Greimler, Patricio López, Karl Reiter, Carlos Baeza, Patricio Peñailillo, Eduardo Ruiz, Patricio Novoa, Alejandro Gatica, and Tod Stuessy, 267–282

We analyzed the vegetation of Alejandro Selkirk Island using the Zürich-Montpellier approach for taking relevés and subsequent classification by a multivariate approach and manual refinement. The resulting vegetation table demonstrates patterns of dominance and variation and the resulting vegetation units that were mapped onto aerial photographs to produce a vegetation map. Additional observations of several inaccessible sectors were gained from photos taken during a boat trip around the island. These results are combined in a colored map that shows the following vegetation units: (1) Dicksonia externa Tree Fern Community (upper montane forest); (2) Lophosoria quadripinnata Fern Community; (3) Fern-Grassland Mosaic; (4) Myrceugenia schulzei Forest (lower montane forest); (5) Anthoxanthum-Nassella Grassland; (6) Coastal Grassland with Juncus procerus; (7) Open Grassland (including Coastal Herb Communities); (8) Rocks, Erosional Zones; and (9) Cultivated and Escaped Plants Near the Settlement. In some cases these units consist of several communities together, often forming mosaic patterns where detailed resolution is not practicable. Unit 7, Open Grassland, has been applied to all areas with a plant cover below 40%, and unit 8, Rocks, Erosional Zones, indicates no or scarce vegetation (cover notably below 10%). Some plant assemblages cannot be shown on the map: (a) the small clusters of Drimys confertifolia; (b) the mostly linearly or patchily arranged Gunnera masafuerae community; (c) several plant assemblages found in the canyons; and (d) the Histiopteris incisa clusters between the tree ferns and tall ferns. We discuss composition of the observed plant communities, especially regarding alien impact, and compare our findings with those on Robinson Crusoe, the largest island of the archipelago.

The Ring Doesn’t Mean a Thing: Molecular Data Suggest a New Taxonomy for Two Pacific Species of Sea Hares (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia, Aplysiidae)
Jennifer Alexander and Ángel Valdés, 283–294

Morphological and molecular data obtained from Hawaiian sea hares identified as Aplysia dactylomela (Rang) and Aplysia pulmonica (Gould) revealed that they belong to the same species. Review of the literature shows that the name A. pulmonica has been used inconsistently, but the specimens we examined match the original description of the species. Two other closely related species, Aplysia kurodai (Baba) and Aplysia oculifera (Adams & Reeve), are distinct. In addition, Caribbean specimens of A. dactylomela are genetically and morphologically distinct from Indo-Pacific A. dactylomela. Because the name A. dactylomela was introduced for Atlantic specimens, it is here proposed that the name Aplysia argus (Rüppell & Leuckart) should be used for Indo-Pacific sea hares previously identified as A. dactylomela.

Rapid Reproductive Analysis and Length-Dependent Relationships of Lutjanus biguttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from Papua New Guinea
Ken Longenecker, Ross Langston, and Holly Bolick, 295–301

We describe a simple, inexpensive method for field-based histological analysis of fish gonads, and we used this method to describe the reproductive biology of the small snapper Lutjanus biguttatus from a remote area in Papua New Guinea (i.e., where laboratory equipment is limited and electrical service is lacking). We estimate male L50 at 13 cm FL and female L50 at 17 cm FL. Sex ratio is not significantly different from 1:1. There is no evidence for hermaphroditism. Fork length is a linear function of total length, FL = −0.1823 + 0.9647(TL), and weight is a cubic function of fork length, W = 0.0129(FL)3.0049. This information was generated during a 2-week period when the majority of our time was occupied by fish surveys. Our analyses were limited by availability of specimens (not processing time); therefore the methods we employed can help fill one of the information voids that preclude life-history-based management of coral-reef fishes.

Northern Distribution of the Seaweed Limpet Lottia insessa (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along the Pacific Coast
Evelyne S. L. Kuo and Eric Sanford, 303–313

The marine seaweed limpet Lottia insessa (Hinds) is a habitat specialist on the kelp Egregia menziesii along the northeastern Pacific coast. The geographic range of L. insessa is commonly reported to extend from Alaska to Baja California, Mexico, but the northern distribution of this limpet has been poorly documented. We examined L. insessa specimens from museum collections and surveyed distribution of this species in the field. Results indicate that this species is common in California but is rarely found farther north. Some museum specimens collected from northern localities were misidentified individuals of other limpet species. The northern limit to continuous distribution of persistent L. insessa populations ends at Cape Arago in southern Oregon, a known biogeographic boundary for a variety of marine species. We suggest that individuals occasionally found in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska may have been vagrants that were transported to those locations during anomalous oceanographic events such as El Niño−Southern Oscillations, a phenomenon that has also been observed in other marine organisms. This study clarifies location of the northern range boundary of L. insessa and provides baseline data on its current distributional patterns, which are important for assessing effects of climate change on potential range shifts in the future.

Association Affairs

Pacific Science 67, no. 3

Guest editors: John N. Kittinger and Edward W. Glazier
Pac Sci 67.3 cover
Human Dimensions of Small-Scale and Traditional Fisheries in the Asia-Pacific Region
John N. Kittinger, 315

Abstract: The Asia-Pacific region is home to a diversity of coastal cultures that are highly reliant on the ocean and its resources for sustenance, livelihoods, and cultural continuity. Small-scale fisheries account for most of the livelihoods associated with fisheries, produce about as much fish as industrialized fisheries, and contribute substantially to the economies of countries and territories in the Asia-Pacific region. Yet these resource systems and their human communities face numerous local and global threats, and social vulnerability to these pressures places at risk the livelihoods, food security, well-being, and traditional lifestyles of coastal communities and cultures of the Asia-Pacific region. This article and special issue provide an overview of the challenges and opportunities for small-scale and traditional fisheries and the role of human dimensions research in the sustainable governance of these resource systems. It is increasingly clear that sufficient understanding of the social, economic, and cultural aspects of these linked social-ecological systems is critical in determining pathways toward sustainability.

Editorial: The Pacific Science Association and Human Dimensions Research in the Asia-Pacific Region
Nancy Davis Lewis, 327

Mahele: Sustaining Communities through Small-Scale Inshore Fishery Catch and Sharing Networks
Mehana Blaich Vaughan and Peter M. Vitousek, 329

Abstract: Throughout the Pacific, “subsistence” fishing feeds not only individual fishers and their families but a much broader network of people through the noncommercial distribution, or sharing, of fish. This study evaluated the current importance of this sharing, through tracking subsistence fish catch and distributions (mahele) in one small Hawai‘i fishery over an 18-month period. We found that the traditional and customary system of sharing fish, like subsistence activities in other mixed-economy settings, provides benefits beyond provisioning of food. These benefits include perpetuation of traditional and customary skills and practices, social status, social networks, reciprocal exchange, and collective insurance. Taken together these benefits enhance resilience of community-level social and ecological systems.

Seafood and Society on O‘ahu in the Main Hawaiian Islands
Edward Glazier, Courtney Carothers, Nicole Milne, and Melissa Iwamoto, 345

Abstract: Social, cultural, economic, and environmental aspects of fishing are central considerations in contemporary fishery management decisions. Yet scientific research supporting such decisions around the United States has tended to focus primarily on environmental and economic aspects of marine fisheries. In this article we report on a project that was designed to improve understanding of social organizational aspects of fishing and potential intercommunity variability in patterns of seafood distribution in the Main Hawaiian Islands. Research methods included an extended period of ethnographic observation and in-depth interviews with networks of avid small-boat fishermen in two communities on the island of O‘ahu. Findings make clear that the pursuit and distribution of seafood products are important organizing features of local societies in Hawai‘i and that the nature and extent of selling, sharing, and consuming pelagic seafood vary between the study communities, indicating likely variation in the nature and extent of use of seafood landed elsewhere in the Islands. These findings ideally would be taken into account in any future policy-making processes that could result in new strictures on small-boat fisheries in this island region.

Participatory Fishing Community Assessments to Support Coral Reef Fisheries Comanagement
John N. Kittinger, 361

Abstract: Comanagement of natural resources involves shared management authority and responsibility between resource users or community groups at local levels and central government authorities. In data-poor, small-scale fisheries systems, community-based planning efforts can be informed by participatory research approaches that involve community members and stakeholder groups in the design, development, and implementation of research. This article draws upon research in Maunalua Bay, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i, to illustrate the utility of participatory assessments in communities, institutions, and organizations as they transition toward comanagement arrangements. A community-led survey effort revealed temporal changes in habitat use patterns and declines in key fisheries species and habitats. Fishing activities in Maunalua Bay are primarily non-commercial in nature and many of the direct benefits from local fisheries are distributed through social-kinship networks. The fishing community exhibited a high capacity for engagement in community-based planning efforts and also provided input on proposed management measures. The article concludes by documenting the social and environmental factors that influence the distribution of coral reef fisheries ecosystem services, and assessing sliding baselines among community fishers. Participatory resource assessments hold promise for building local social adaptive capacity, bringing together disparate stakeholder groups, and building place-based natural resource management plans reflective of local contexts and community priorities.

Effort Triggers, Fish Flow, and Customary Exchange in American Samoa and the Northern Marianas: Critical Human Dimensions of Western Pacific Fisheries
Craig Severance, Robert Franco, Michael Hamnett, Cheryl Anderson, and Fini Aitaoto, 383

Abstract: This article draws on anthropological research and long-term observation of regional fisheries to examine sociocultural and resource management dimensions of small-scale and traditional fishing operations in American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Ethnographic and survey research were undertaken in both archipelagos with the principal objective of describing and analyzing the nature and extent of traditional and customary fishing activities and associated seafood distribution practices. The resulting description and analysis focus on factors that trigger fishing effort and facilitate distribution of seafood in extended family and community settings across the study regions. Research findings indicate the ongoing importance of seafood in dietary terms and in terms of social organization and cultural continuity; these are discussed in relation to two ongoing resource management issues in the western Pacific.

Traditional Knowledge, Use, and Management of Living Marine Resources in American Samoa: Documenting Changes over Time through Interviews with Elder Fishers
Arielle Levine and Fatima Sauafea-Le‘au, 395

Abstract: We interviewed elder fishermen in American Samoa to better understand their perspectives on traditional use and management of marine resources and changes in the status of certain species over the course of time. Elder fishermen provide an important source of information in a context of limited catch data, declining fishing effort, and evolving local fishing traditions. Most fishermen interviewed during the study described a decline in the quality of various nearshore habitats, a general decrease in abundance of edible reef fish, and diminished abundance of locally valued palolo, atule, giant clams, and octopus. Populations of reef sharks and turtles are typically seen as stable or increasing. Fishermen from the relatively densely populated island of Tutuila tended to report a greater decrease in abundance of marine resources in general than did fishermen from the more remote Manu‘a Islands. Elder fishermen commonly reported deterioration of nearshore and shoreline habitats as an issue of concern. Many interviewees also asserted that past use of destructive fishing methods has led to a decline in marine resources in the region. The fishermen generated various recommendations for improving local fisheries, including: reducing runoff-related pollution and sediment, preventing destructive fishing methods, and establishing marine protected areas. Although traditional marine tenure systems are no longer as influential in American Samoa as they were in the past, various rules regarding appropriate use of local marine ecosystems and associated resources continue to be implemented across the islands.

Contrasts in Social and Ecological Assessments of Coral Reef Health in Melanesia
Simon Albert, Mark Love, and Tom D. Brewer, 409

Abstract: Numerous studies have explored the “shifting baseline syndrome” (SBS), which suggests that individual perceptions of environmental health are formed by comparing the environment to a “baseline” from the past. Understanding social perceptions of environmental conditions, especially where they differ from ecological assessments, can help guide environmental management efforts. In this study we compared ecological assessments of coral reef health with perceptions of reef health from surveyed residents in five villages in Solomon Islands and Fiji. Comparative analysis suggests that respondents from Solomon Islands perceived their reefs as being degraded, yet based on ecological measurements actually had healthier reefs, while in Fiji fewer people perceived their reefs to be declining in health, yet ecological measurement showed them to be more degraded than Solomon Islands reefs. We found no evidence of baselines “shifting” relative to respondent age in this instance and suggest that these differential baselines and the inverse relationship between local perceptions and ecological measurements may be a result of: (1) differences in the rate of environmental change experienced at local scales; and (2) may also be related to differences in respondent perceptions of “quality of life” at each site. If the success of conservation approaches such as marine protected areas (MPAs) are dependent on local social consensus that natural resources are diminished or degraded, then tracking broader social indicators like “quality of life” and “rates of change” (real and perceived) alongside ecological assessments of environmental health may prove beneficial to conservation practitioners.

Historical Patterns of Resource Exploitation and the Status of Papua New Guinea Coral Reefs
Maria Margarita Berzunza-Sanchez, Maria del Carmen Gomez Cabrera, and John M. Pandolfi, 425

Abstract: Understanding human drivers of exploitation within the context of historical baselines can assist in better management of natural resources. Retrospective studies provide insight into the scale, nature, and timing of human influence on reef ecosystems. Using Papua New Guinea as a model, we assessed human influences on the historical status of reef resources through time. Reef resources were divided into seven ecological guilds, assessed over seven cultural periods and in reference to seven types of human influences. Ranking of ecological status and human influence was performed based on extensive bibliographical research. Evidence for periods of sustainability and depletion were found throughout historical and modern periods. More recently, acceleration in the rate of resource depletion has occurred as a result of increasing pressure at unprecedented scales. Subsistence lifestyles are becoming unviable or unattractive since the introduction of the cash economy during colonial times. Current challenges such as providing livelihood options and sustaining replenishment rates of reef resources have arisen from a long history of overexploitation that preconditioned the current status of reef resources under an economic climate of increasing demand for these resources. Studies of past human exploitation of reef resources can help to overcome the shifting baseline syndrome for fisheries management in marine ecosystems and help characterize the scale and intensity of human drivers influencing resource exploitation.

Customary Marine Resource Knowledge and Use in Contemporary Hawai‘i
Alan M. Friedlander, Janna M. Shackeroff, and John N. Kittinger, 441

Abstract: The Hawaiians of old depended on the sea for survival and, as a result, developed a sophisticated understanding of the natural processes regulating resource abundance and effective strategies to manage those resources. After Western contact, sociopolitical upheaval led to the breakdown of the traditional Hawaiian fisheries management system, though practice and knowledge continued. Even today, subsistence fishing is culturally and economically important to many communities throughout Hawai‘i, but declining resources over the past century have raised concerns about their sustainability. To confront this issue, a number of communities are currently strengthening local influence and accountability for local marine resources through revitalization of local traditions and resource knowledge. This renaissance of traditional community-based management and rediscovery of traditional techniques offers great promise for improving the condition of Hawai‘i’s coastal marine environment and the management of its fisheries.

Design of Realistic Hybrid Marine Resource Management Programs in Oceania
Shankar Aswani and Kenneth Ruddle, 461

Abstract: This review article synthesizes the authors’ several decades of multidisciplinary natural and social science and applied marine resource management experience in the Asia-Pacific region to examine the strengthening of coastal and marine resource management and conservation using alliances between local communities and external institutions. The objective is to assist the design of resource management and conservation programs that enhance the capacity of coastal communities in Oceania to confront both diminishing marine resources and the effects of climate change by providing guidelines for protecting marine biodiversity and vulnerable ecosystem functions. This article describes a management framework that hybridizes local beliefs and institutions expressed in customary management (CM) with such modern management concepts as marine protected areas (MPAs) and ecosystem-based management (EBM). Hybrid management accommodates the social, political, economic, and cultural contexts of Oceanic communities and, compared with recent or conventional management approaches, can therefore better address fundamental local concerns such as coastal degradation, climate change, sea level rise, weak governance, corruption, limited resources and staff to manage and monitor marine resources, and increasing poverty. Research on the hybridization of management systems demonstrates opportunities to establish context-appropriate EBM and/or other managerial arrangements that include terrestrial and adjacent coastal-marine ecosystems. Formal and informal CM systems are widespread in Oceania and in some parts of Southeast Asia, and if appropriate strategies are employed rapid progress toward hybrid CM-EBM could be enabled.

Carving a Niche or Cutting a Broad Swath: Subsistence Fishing in the Western Pacific
Stewart Allen, 477

Abstract: Fish stocks in many parts of the western Pacific are increasingly being subjected to a variety of environmental and human pressures. Resource managers are responding to the situation by limiting and allocating catch across the various fisheries. There is a corresponding need to appropriately classify fishers and fishing fleets to ensure that all sectors are fairly considered when catch allocation decisions are undertaken in the region. But discrete classification of small-scale fishing sectors is challenging because commercial, recreational, and food-gathering motives often overlap. Moreover, despite the known importance of small-scale fishing in the western Pacific, the manner and extent of such activities are not well understood or thoroughly documented. This paper seeks to elucidate the nature of subsistence or consumption-oriented fishing and its relationship to other forms of small-scale fishing activities in the region. A conceptual framework of potential utility for assessing the degree to which small-scale operations are moving toward or away from subsistence fishing is developed with the intent of optimizing the resource allocation decision-making process. The discussion is based on review of pertinent literature and on findings from research recently conducted in Hawai‘i and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Association Affairs, 489

Pacific Science 67, no. 4

Pac Sci 67.4 cover
Affinities of Sponges (Porifera) of the Marquesas and Society Islands, French Polynesia
Kathryn A. Hall, Patricia R. Sutcliffe, John N. A. Hooper, Aline Alencar, Jean Vacelet, Andrzej Pisera, Sylvain Petek, Eric Folcher, John Butscher, Joel Orempuller, Nicolas Maihota, and Cécile Debitus, 493

Abstract: This article reports on a survey of sponges from the higher-island reefs and slopes of the Marquesas and Society Islands archipelagos, French Polynesia, recording presence/absence and an estimate of local abundance at 109 sites from six and eight islands within each archipelago, respectively. Sponge distributions within archipelagos were relatively homogeneous, showing some differential patterns in affinities between north-south islands, and approximately one-third of the fauna apparently endemic to these archipelagos, but between-archipelago comparisons showed large heterogeneity, with only four of the 75 species shared between both archipelagos. The fauna of the Marquesas Islands (with sites consisting mostly of rocky slopes) was dominated by species in order Poecilosclerida and showed a range of taxonomic diversity similar to that of the remote fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. By comparison, the sponge fauna of the Society Islands sites was dominated by species of order Dictyoceratida, reflecting predominance of coral reef and lagoon sites and associated phototrophic feeding strategies. Parsimony and multivariate statistical analyses comparing French Polynesian sponge faunas with others in the southwestern Pacific showed closest nested faunal similarities between the (Marquesas Islands+Society Islands), (((Tonga+Fiji)+Vanuatu)+New Caledonia), and (North Great Barrier Reef+South Great Barrier Reef) but no or very low similarity between more geographically isolated faunas such as Palau and the collective Great Barrier Reef.

Evidence of an Island-Associated Population of False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Robin W. Baird, Erin M. Oleson, Jay Barlow, Allan D. Ligon, Antoinette M. Gorgone, and Sabre D. Mahaffy, 513

Abstract: Two populations of false killer whales, Pseudorca crassidens, are recognized from Hawaiian waters: the Hawaiian insular population, an island-associated population found around the main Hawaiian Islands; and the Hawai‘i pelagic population, found in offshore waters. This species has not been previously documented near the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. During a 2010 large-vessel survey throughout the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding the Hawaiian Islands, false killer whales from 11 encounters were individually photo-identified, and photos were compared among encounters and with a catalog of false killer whales from the main Hawaiian Islands. Individuals from three of the encounters, all in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands within the eastern part of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, were the only ones documented that matched with false killer whales previously seen around the main Hawaiian Islands, and the matches were to individuals documented off Kaua‘i in 2008 that were of unknown population membership. Two individuals from one of these three 2010 encounters were instrumented with satellite tags attached to dorsal fins, and their movements were documented over 4.6 and 52 days. Movements of the tagged individuals ranged from French Frigate Shoals to Middle Bank (between Nīhoa and Ni‘ihau) and included shallow nearshore waters and deep waters to 147 km from land. Combined, the photo-identification and satellite-tagging results suggest that there is a second island-associated population of this species in Hawai‘i that primarily uses the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, with a range that overlaps with that of the main Hawaiian Islands insular population.

Entanglements of Large Cetaceans in Peru: Few Records but High Risk
Ignacio García-Godos, Koen Van Waerebeek, Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto, and Jeffrey C. Mangel, 523

Abstract: Entanglements of large cetaceans with fishing gears were only recorded four times in Peru before 1995, despite the intensive use of gill nets and longlines. This work compiles recent events of large cetacean entanglement in Peru, from direct observations, local news, and online graphical evidence. A total of 15 confirmed entanglements was recorded between 1995 and 2012, involving humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae (n=10); sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus (n=3); an Antarctic minke whale, Balaenoptera bonaerensis; and an unidentified balaenopterid. Gill nets were involved in 80% of the entanglements, followed by longlines. Prevalence of humpback whale entanglements may be associated with the neritic location of the majority of gill net fishing sets, interfering with the whale’s migratory routes and reproductive habitat in northern Peru. Intensive use of gill nets and increasing use of longlines in artisanal fisheries represent serious threats to conservation of large cetaceans in Peru and the Southeast Pacific and need to be addressed by national and regional conservation authorities.

High Mortality in a Surgeonfish following an Exceptional Settlement Event
Adrian C. Stier, Joshua A. Idjadi, Shane W. Geange, and Jada-Simone S. White, 533

Abstract: Marine organisms occasionally settle at exceptional densities, whereby thousands of individuals arrive concurrently. High levels of mortality, which has historically been attributed to predation or competition, often follow this episodic settlement of reef fishes. Here, however, we observed large numbers of newly settled surgeonfish (Ctenochaetus striatus) with white lesions lying dead on the sand amongst patch reefs following separate episodic settlement events in 2006 and 2009 in Moorea, French Polynesia. Pathogens have been identified as an important driver of population dynamics in other marine organisms but less so for reef fishes. Our observations suggest that disease outbreaks may play an underappreciated role as a mechanism of mortality following episodic settlement events in reef fishes.

Food Availability for Particle-Feeding Bivalves, Anadara spp., in Fiji
Yousef A. E. S. M. Buhadi, Toru Kobari, Kei Kawai, Tomoko Yamamoto, Hiroshi Suzuki, Satoru Nishimura, Takashi Torii, and Joeli Veitayaki, 539

Abstract: We compared food availability of filter-feeding bivalves, Anadara spp., between two Fijian sites of different mangrove richness to evaluate impacts of environmental variables on Anadara spp. abundance and body size. Suspended particles including planktonic organisms and detritus were more abundant in the fishery grounds of the mangrove-rich site (MR) than in the mangrove-poor site (MP). Although no substantial difference was observed in abundance of Anadara spp., dry weights of soft tissue were heavier for animals at MR than those at MP. Respiration rates (i.e., minimum metabolic requirements) of Anadara spp. decreased with increasing animal weight. Unicellular planktonic biomass was estimated to support the Anadara community metabolic requirements (i.e., minimum food requirement) for 9.2 to 85.7 days at MR and 1.4 to 67.4 days at MP, indicating that the planktonic biomass cannot support sufficient growth of the bivalve population at some locations. These results suggest that suspended particles support increased shell sizes of Anadara spp. and that resuspended detritus is a supplement or alternative food resource for these bivalves in mangrove-coral associated ecosystems.

Herbarium Specimens Reveal Putative Insect Extinction on the Deforested Island of Mangareva (Gambier Archipelago, French Polynesia)
David H. Hembry, 553

Abstract: Human activities are expected to result in extinction of many organisms in taxonomically neglected lineages; however, actually documenting these extinctions is very difficult for soft-bodied organisms that do not leave a subfossil record. Subfossil and historic records reveal that human-induced extinction has been particularly marked for gastropods and terrestrial vertebrates on Pacific islands, but whether human activities resulted in similar biodiversity loss in soft-bodied, taxonomically neglected animals (such as insects) remains unclear. However, in cases in which specialized plant-feeding insects leave diagnostic feeding damage on plants, herbarium specimens coupled with resurvey efforts may indicate potential extinctions or extirpations during historic times. Here, I report the discovery of leaf mines in herbarium specimens of the plant Phyllanthus wilderi (Phyllanthaceae: Glochidion sensu lato) from the island of Mangareva (Gambier Islands, French Polynesia). These mines were not rediscovered in recent surveys on Mangareva but are similar to those made today by leaf-mining moths (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on many other islands in southeastern Polynesia. This is, to the best of my knowledge, the first report of a potential insect extinction from Mangareva, an island already well known for its history of anthropogenic habitat destruction and biodiversity loss. This result indicates that herbarium specimens may be used to identify potentially extinct and extirpated insect taxa. Future biodiversity surveys on Pacific islands and elsewhere should use herbarium specimens as a guide both to documenting potential extinctions and to search for rediscovery of rare taxa.

Diversity and Origins of Fijian Leaf-Cutter Bees (Megachilidae)
Olivia K. Davies, Scott V. C. Groom, Hien T. Ngo, Mark I. Stevens, and Michael P. Schwarz, 561

Abstract: Bees are key pollinators in almost all terrestrial ecosystems and can have major roles in agricultural production. Records of bees in the Southwest Pacific indicate a very low diversity, with the Fijian bee fauna one of the least diverse, despite an otherwise rich biota. Megachilid bees represent a large proportion of the bee fauna for almost all island groups in the Southwest Pacific and, because they are wood- and stem-nesting, their wide distribution is likely to have been influenced by rafting and anthropogenic maritime trade. Our study is the first to apply molecular techniques to the study of megachilid bees in this region and indicates between four and five recent introductions to Fiji, likely from Southeast Asia. The study also provides the first record of Heriades (Michenerella) in the Southwest Pacific and the first record of the subgenus Megachile (Callomegachile) in Fiji. These results indicate that a large proportion of the Fijian bee fauna is likely to have been introduced only very recently and, therefore, has had only a very recent role in Fijian ecosystems, despite their current abundance. This has very wide implications for understanding Fijian plant-pollinator relationships. We argue that there is a strong need to understand ancient plant-pollinator relationships that may have evolved in Fiji before the mid–late Pleistocene and Holocene and whether these could be disrupted by recent bee introductions.

Terrestrial Herpetofauna of Île des Pins, New Caledonia, with an Emphasis on Its Surrounding Islands
Anthony J. Geneva, Aaron M. Bauer, Ross A. Sadlier, and Todd R. Jackman, 571

Abstract: New Caledonia is recognized globally as a biodiversity hot spot due, in part, to the high levels of endemism seen among the region’s unique fauna and flora. Although substantial research efforts have been dedicated to the remarkable reptile diversity of the main island, the Grande Terre, comparably few studies have focused on the Île des Pins that lies off its southern tip. The last review of the herpetofauna of the Île des Pins was 18 yr ago; since then increased effort has been directed toward investigating the reptiles of the Île des Pins and its satellite islands. In this update we provide an overview of this region’s lizard fauna, including new reptile records and the results of surveys of previously herpetologically unexplored islands in the vicinity of the Île des Pins, all in the context of a revised taxonomy. Results presented expand known ranges of 18 species and identify eight species not previously known from the area. Satellite islands surrounding the Île des Pins, despite their small size, contribute substantially to the biodiversity of the region and support several reptile species of conservation concern not recorded for the Île des Pins proper, nor the New Caledonian mainland.

Loss of Seed Buoyancy in Hibiscus glaber on the Oceanic Bonin Islands
Hiroshi Kudoh, Koji Takayama, and Naoki Kachi, 591

Abstract: The Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands are subtropical oceanic islands in the northwestern Pacific. Reflecting their ancient origins, previous studies on plants of the Bonin Islands reported evolutionary phenomena that are common to oceanic islands, such as high endemism and accelerated diversification. In this article, we demonstrate the first example of loss of seed dispersibility during the evolutionary processes of the plants of the Bonin Islands. Seed buoyancy and morphology of Hibiscus glaber, a tree endemic to the Bonin Islands, and H. tiliaceus, a pantropic species, were examined. The latter is the progenitor species of H. glaber. Average ratios of floating seeds per tree were 0.2 and 0.8 for H. glaber and H. tiliaceus, respectively, in a 3% NaCl solution. There was considerable variation among individual H. glaber trees, ranging from 0 to 0.89. The air space inside the seed coat was generally smaller in H. glaber than in H. tiliaceus. Loss of seed buoyancy in H. glaber is due to decreased air space in the seeds. It is plausible that loss of seed buoyancy occurred in response to the habitat shift inland during the speciation process of H. glaber from the coastal species H. tiliaceus.

Palau’s Rare and Threatened Palm Ponapea palauensis (Arecaceae): Population Density, Distribution, and Threat Assessment
Craig M. Costion, Ann Hillmann-Kitalong, Steve Perlman, and Will Edwards, 599

Abstract: Ponapea palauensis Kaneh., a palm endemic to the Palau archipelago in the western Caroline Islands, has previously been reported to be threatened and in decline due to predation by two species of introduced parrots, Cactua galerita Lath. and Eclectus roratus P. L. S. Mull., and potential predation by introduced rats. Here we assess its threatened status under the IUCN Red List Criteria and provide the first quantitative assessment of its population size. A complete distribution map is also provided establishing its total area of occupancy and maximum extent of occurrence. We find that the species qualifies for a minimum of Vulnerable status on the IUCN Red List, and it potentially qualifies for Critically Endangered status pending confirmation of a continuous population decline. Historical records of predation on the palms by parrots are consistent with current observations indicating that the species is threatened and in need of a management plan for conservation action and long-term monitoring of the stability of the extant population.

The Diatom (Bacillariophyceae) Genus Actinella Lewis in Hawai‘i
Hayden Ripple and J. Patrick Kociolek, 609

Abstract: We review the occurrence of the diatom genus Actinella Lewis in Hawai‘i. Based on collections from the islands of Kaua‘i, Moloka‘i, and Hawai‘i, we have documented the presence of three species of the genus. Using light and scanning electron microscopy, we illustrate these species, two of which are new to science and described here. Actinella punctata Lewis is distinct in having a bulbous headpole with a short extension at the dorsal margin and a large extension on the ventral margin. This species was observed from Hawai‘i and Moloka‘i. Actinella hawaiiensis Ripple & Kociolek, n. sp., is distinguished by its headpole extension being produced from the dorsal margin, whereas A. molokaiensis Ripple & Kociolek, n. sp., has a headpole protuberance near the center of the apex. Both of the new species are found on the islands of Kaua‘i and Molokai‘i. A previously described endemic, A. punctata var. alakaiensis Main, was not encountered in our collections. Three of the four Actinella taxa from Hawai‘i are currently known as endemics and appear to have their closest allies in either North and/or South America, similar to observations for Gyrosigma krammeri Kociolek et al., another diatom species in Hawai‘i. Further research is necessary to determine the biogeographic patterns of the freshwater diatom flora of Hawai‘i.

Index to Volume 67, 623

Association Affairs, 629

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